Category Archives: Beary Artist

Arvo Pärt and Mozart at Harpa

Harpa – Norðurljós recitall hall

Consternation! There is no stage to pose on! 🙂

Little bears are at Harpa for a Friday series concert. The standard program features solo works paired with an orchestral work performed by the Iceland Symphony Orchestra.

Tonight’s main soloist is Víkingur Ólafsson, who is widely considered Iceland’s pre-eminent pianist. Víkingur is no stranger to Harpa. He performed at the concert hall’s opening event in 2011, and has premiered several new works there, performing regularly with the Iceland Symphony Orchestra. In 2012, Harpa started hosting his annual chamber music festival, Reykjavík Midsummer Music. Needless to say, he’s grown very fond of the place.

Víkingur Ólafsson

Víkingur Ólafsson has shot to international fame due to his playing of Philip Glass. But tonight he is playing Arvo Pärt and Mozart.

Although Mozart and Arvo Pärt belong to two different periods, they have much in common artistically. Their music is pure and uplifting, often with a simple surface overlaying inner complexity. Für Alina for piano was a watershed in Pärt’s career, in which he found his own voice after a hiatus of many years. The Mozart-Adagio is Pärt’s piano trio arrangement of a gorgeous movement from one of Mozart’s piano sonatas.

Mozart’s piano works in c minor, written in 1785-1786, are unusually dark and tempestuous – even a sort of harbinger of the type of expression frequently associated with Beethoven. The Fantasia for solo piano is a perfect prelude to the concerto. In both pieces, Mozart explores the depths of the soul in a different way than he had previously done. Víkingur Ólafsson does double-duty as soloist and conductor, leading the orchestra from the piano, as was done in Mozart’s day.

Für Alina (1976)

Nicola Lolli, violin and Víkingur Ólafsson, piano

Arvo Pärt went into a self-imposed creative exile for eight years, trying to find a way to resolve the creative conflict that he had opened up in Credo (1968). His Third Symphony, from 1971, is the only piece that dates from this transitional period, an attempt to fuse elements of the traditions Pärt was drawn to: Gregorian chant, harmonic simplicity, and the spiritual explorations into his Russian Orthodox faith he undertook at the same time.

In 1976 he succeeded in his quest, and the result sounds as if it had existed all along, music of the “little bells”, the so-called “tintinnabuli”, which you hear for the first time in this two-and-a-half minute piano miniature, Für Alina. This little piece is the seed from which the rest of Pärt’s musical life has grown: in the space of just a couple of years, Pärt composed the pieces that are still among his most popular today, including Fratres, the Concerto for two violins, Tabula Rasa, Summa, and the Cantus in Memoriam Benjamin Britten. These works helped establish his international reputation, especially in the West.

Mozart-Adagio (1992)

Nicola Lolli, violin, Víkingur Ólafsson, piano and Sigurgeir Agnarsson, cello

This short piano trio was written by Arvo Pärt in memory of his friend, the Russian violinist Oleg Kagan. Kagan is particularly renowned for his chamber music partnership with his wife, cellist Natalia Gutman, and pianist Sviatoslav Richter. Kagan had become seriously ill with cancer in 1989 and died a year later aged 43 in Munich. 216 years earlier in the same city, the 18-year-old Mozart had written his Piano Sonata in F K.280. Its Adagio, in the form of an F-minor Siciliana, has an extraordinary tragic power emphasised by poignant use of the semitone interval of a minor second (as in the opening three notes). Pärt’s reworking of the Mozart Adagio is respectful and moving.

Arvo Pärt is an Estonian classical composer and one of the most prominent living composers of sacred music, whose shimmeringly beautiful music is a curious and compelling blend of the secular and the sacred.

He was born in Estonia in 1935. In 1939 the Nazi-Soviet Pact handed the country to Stalin, and Pärt grew up under Soviet rule. That did not preclude a sophisticated musical education. At school he studied piano, percussion and oboe, and at 14 he began composing. Within three years he had written Meloodia, a solo piano piece in the style of Rachmaninov, which was commended in a young artists’ competition.

In 1954, he was called up for National Service in the army for two years. On his return from National Service, Pärt studied at the Tallinn Conservatory with Heino Eller, then a leading Estonian composer, whose teaching provides a thread running through modern Estonian music. Besides Pärt, Eller taught the great symphonist Eduard Tubin, who left Estonia in 1944; and his last student (Eller died in 1970) was Lepo Sumera, one of Estonia’s leading contemporary composers. By no means a modernist, Eller was tolerated by the Soviet authorities, and Pärt recalls him fondly: ‘There is only one central composition school in Estonia, and it’s Eller’s school. He gave me a path, but this path was very broad. He didn’t push in any direction, he supported you even if what you wrote wasn’t exactly like his own credo. He was very human, and it was a vivid apprenticeship.’

Still, it was not easy to be a composer in Estonia. In 1961, Pärt wrote what is widely acknowledged to be the first piece of Estonian serial music, his oratorio Maailma samm (‘The Stride of the World’), a work no longer included in the composer’s catalogue. The authorities regarded serialism as Western and decadent, and Pärt could not but come into conflict with those who controlled musical life, especially since much of his work was overtly religious. For many years he made his living working in radio and film, while writing music that struggled to find an audience.

In 1968 the authorities criticised Pärt’s work Credo, because its religious title seemed to challenge the pillars on which the Soviet Union was built. It seemed impossible for Pärt to be true to himself while also pleasing the authorities and so he hardly wrote a note during the next decade.

In the first half of the 1970s, Pärt’s health, damaged during his time in the army, recovered. He also joined the Russian Orthodox Church and married his second wife. A period of close study of medieval music led in 1976 to the style which Pärt labels ‘tintinnabular’ in recognition of his quest for a bell-like simplicity. Eventually the unending frustrations of Soviet life caused Pärt to emigrate in 1980, and he has lived in Berlin since 1982.

Pärt’s music relies on his deeply held faith and is infused with the centuries-old traditions of European church music, but it is for each listener to make up their own mind whether his music really is ‘religious’.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – Piano Concerto no. 24 in C minor, K491 (1785-1786)

Víkingur Ólafsson with Iceland Symphony Orchestra

Mozart composed 12 piano concertos during the years 1784-86, an astonishing feat given the originality and exceptional quality of these works. To a large degree, much of their originality lies in the sonority and textures resulting from the expanded role of the wind instruments. Mozart was so taken with the abundance and abilities of the wind players in Vienna, that he used them in his scores as a distinct “mass” of sound against which the voice of the piano could be pitted, or to which it could respond in an interplay of motivic and timbral dialogue. In this sense, Mozart’s woodwind writing in this series of concertos figures prominently in the articulation of their forms; the winds no longer simply double the strings but function structurally as “dramatic personas” in their own right.

One of only two concertos Mozart wrote in a minor key, Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K491 possesses a much darker, stormier nature than his previous piano concertos. The kaleidoscope of angst and emotions bundled inside of this work are far beyond those presented in Mozart’s previous concertos. A minor key signature establishes a distinctly different character than that of previous piano concertos. The foreboding character set up through the minor key signature is continued through the changes in structure and form, allowing for the introduction of more themes and contrasting ideas than most concertos. The synthesis of themes between orchestra and soloist also work towards the dark and turbulent character presented in this piece.

Premiered in Vienna on April 7, 1786 at one of three subscription concerts by Mozart, K491 was the last piano concerto of both his time of highly prolific piano concerto compositions, as well as his “Figaro season”. A dramatic change from his previous piano concertos, it was written only twenty-two days after the premiere of Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major and is regarded by many to be “one of Mozart’s most popular works in any genre.” One of Beethoven’s favorite pieces, Beethoven commented to his friend Johann Cramer after hearing a later performance of this concerto that “we shall never be able to do anything like that!” Many critics have noted the menacing, emotional mood of this concerto, describing it as having “an unrelenting, tragic character” that has a “gloomy agitation, but… a major mood, violent and energetic, to be sure, but not ‘tragic’.”

The fact that this concerto is written in a minor key departs from compositional norm of the time. This choice of a minor key illustrates a deliberate conveyance of something different, moodier, and more tempestuous than past concertos. German American musicologist Alfred Einstein, in describing the significance of different key signatures for Mozart observed that “If G minor is the fatalistic key for Mozart, then C minor is the dramatic one, the key of contrasts between aggressive unisons and lyrical passages. The lyrical quality is always taken over by gloomy outbursts.” Mozart’s use of C minor as a dark and emotional key had a large influence on Beethoven who later wrote his Pathetique Piano Sonata No. 8 in the same key, most likely hoping to express the same emotions of emotional turmoil presented in Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 24.

The torrid turbulence of Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor is achieved through a variety of compositional techniques. The choice of a minor key signature, unusual for the time, sets up a more expressive, emotional turmoil than a major key signature would.

The innovation in dialogic interaction between the orchestra and the soloist creates a darker and more foreboding sound as well as providing a vaster array of themes. While Mozart’s piano concertos typically start with a dialogue like interaction between the orchestra and the soloist, K491 does not incorporate any of this direct interaction of dialogue in the initial theme. The first four notes of the orchestral introduction are never played by the soloist. The removal of this dialogue between orchestra and soloist at the beginning creates a more hostile, foreboding sound than the back and forth sharing of themes found at the beginning of previous piano concertos.

The topics expressed in each of the themes synthesize the symphonic storminess of the orchestral expositional theme with the more subtle conflict and struggle of the ascending and descending motives in the soloist expositional theme creating a highly emotional and stormy character. The form of the piece differs from previous concertos possessing a longer exposition into the relative major key as well as introducing more themes.

Finally, the expanded instrumentation of the orchestra gives the piece a larger range of sounds and dynamics to draw from to portray its emotional conflict and stormy nature. The vastness of the orchestra K491 is written for creates a sense of storminess and passion that a smaller orchestra would be unable to produce. Counted among one of the “symphonic concertos”, the instrumentation of Piano Concerto No. 24 includes not only the traditional instruments found in most piano concertos, but also a particularly large woodwind section with oboes and clarinets. The vastness of the instrumentation for this concerto adds to the stormy contrasts of emotions and volume of this concerto. Containing flute, bassoons, horns, trumpets, timpani, and strings, oboes, and clarinets the palette of colors, tones, and harmonies enhance the dark and stormy character being created in this concerto.

The pre-concert talk was not optional! Each piece and composer was introduced in depth, and in Icelandic 🙂 , as part of the concert.

For the encore, Víkingur Ólafsson played Philip Glass’ Etude No. 9.

Drottningholm Palace and Theatre

Drottningholm Palace

When Dowager Queen Hedvig Eleonora took over Drottningholm in 1661, the palace was owned by Chancellor of the Realm Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie. On the same lakeside site stood a palace erected nearly a century before by the Vasa King Johan III for his wife, Katarina Jagellonica. It was for her that the palace on Lake Mälaren came to be called “the Queen’s Isler”.

Shortly after Hedvig Eleonora bought the property, the old palace was destroyed by fire. The queen turned to Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and ordered him released from his other royal duties to prepare drawings for a new palace.

Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (1615-1681) came from Stralsund, in Germany (then part of Sweden), where he had been educated in building fortifications. As an assistant to Simon de la Vallée, he had become well-grounded in civil building, although his future development was greatly influenced by a study tour through Europe in 1651-53 sponsored by Queen Christina. Like Jean de la Vallée, Tessin received many commissions from the high nobility, but unlike his rival, he managed his career carefully and was better focused on his goals. While Jean had trouble delivering drawings on time, Tessin carried his tasks to completion. In 1661, after fifteen years as Royal Architect, he took over from Jean responsibility for the Royal Palace and was given the title of Stockholm’s first City Architect. Later, King Karl XI elevated Tessin the Elder to the nobility.

Thanks to his skill and tenacity, and to whole troops of assistants, Tessin managed to produce over three decades some thirty great country houses, as well as a number of churches and palaces in Stockholm. He was the supreme master of his time, and with his classically composed architecture he was able to realize his clients’ architectural ambitions. While Tessin looked to France, Holland and Italy for prototypes, his models came primarily from the 16th century Italian architect, Andrea Palladio, whose books on architecture wielded great influence throughout Europe. Tessin travelled in northern Italy to study Palladio’s famous villas, in which the Italian master had brilliantly melded visions of the houses and temples of antiquity. Eventually, all of Tessin’s time was consumed by the one project for which he is most renowned: Drottningholm, today the residence of Sweden’s royal family.

Drottningholm Palace

Tessin made use of the foundation and the surviving walls and laid out a pair of larger rooms – the so-called guards’ rooms – plus a stair hall and a vestibule. Around this core, two state apartments with the most prestigious rooms were linked by a gallery facing the sea. All this was contained in a rectangular building with a recessed central section looking toward the garden. The second floor followed a similar arrangement.

Soon after the new foundations were laid in 1662, the queen decided to enlarge the palace. Four two-story corner pavilions were now added, as well as single-story, flat-roofed wings that enclosed two inner courtyards. At the outer corners stood two smaller pavilions to which were affixed, as accenting finials for the building, two doomed towers; the southern tower housed the palace kitchen, the northern one was to house the palace chapel (though it was not completed until 1728). Tessin’s ability to divide the building’s volume into small, well-proportioned, interconnected segments gave the palace a harmonious rhythm while sustaining its overall architectural integrity. The exterior was completed around 1671.

Drottningholm Palace

When completed, the palace consisted of a central, three-story main block facing the water, with only two stories on a low base facing the garden. Above the rusticated ground floor, the façade was articulated by pilasters and mouldings. The main portico toward the lake – the formal entrance – was flanked by paired Doric columns and adorned with Sweden’s coat of arms. On the opposite side of the building, a double stairway provided an imposing passage to the garden. The walls around the three arched openings that formed the entrance were capped by a cornice, with, among other things, console brackets, lion heads and the Swedish and the Hostein-Gottorp dynasty’s coat of arms. The architect gave the corner pavilions on this side more elaborate façades, columns and pediments, while the lower wings were completely rusticated. From the beginning, the stucco walls were pale red with the articulation in grey.

Tessin was able to combine prototypes from different places at Drottningholm to create a personal and independently interpreted baroque classicism. That Tessin possessed detailed knowledge of his classical sources of inspiration is evident in his floor plan for Drottningholm, which derives from Palladio’s villas but with a French baroque palace service as intermediary, or perhaps another prototype, the Dutch palace, Huis ten Bosch, in the Hague. Just as the system of corner pavilions was inspired by French models such as Luxembourg Palace, the idea to extend the Swedish palace lengthwise may have been derived from Villa Doria Pamphili in Rome; the latter, which also exhibits similar characteristics, was just being completed when Tessin was there. A likely prototype for the garden façade was the Villa Borghese in Rome, with its arcade and loggia.

Drottningholm Palace

The central core of Drottningholm palace contains a stairwell, a vestibule and on the two main floors, long galleries, the lower one of which takes the form of an interior loggia. On either side of this core, on the two upper stories, is a suite of rooms. The lower north suite was furnished as the dowager queen’s state apartment and consisted of a small antechamber next to a guards’ room, a small audience hall, a state bedchamber (though in fact not for sleeping, and hence referred to instead as the alcove) a large audience hall called “the Ehrenstrahl salon” for the court painter, many of whose works adorn the walls, and a state antechamber. The most distinguished suite, the king’s apartment, was to be on the top floor, but the rooms were not completed during the 17th century.

During more than half a century, the aging Hedvig Eleonora was occupied with the construction and furnishing of the palace, with the work in her apartment going on for thirty years. It was here that the most important room of the palace was located: Hedvig Eleonora’s state bedchamber. The room was designed in a strict classical manner with a flat ceiling above walls articulated with pilasters and with an overabundance of gilding, stucco carvings and marquetry. Here David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl depicted in allegorical paintings the history of the queen’s marriage and the life of her young son, later King Karl XI.

Drottningholm Palace – Hedvig Eleonora’s State Bedchamber
Drottningholm Palace – Hedvig Eleonora’s State Bedchamber

The interior feature most admired during the 17th century was the magnificent stairway, which reaches up through the full height of the palace. In this space, all forms of art were combined to create a splendour never before seen in Sweden, with robust stucco reliefs, marble sculptures, as well as perspective fresco paintings by Johan Sylvius. These depicted guests in the garb of faraway places gazing out over the stairway. Geatish kings from Nordic mythology, along with deities and muses from antiquity, were associated with contemporary theories that Sweden was the origin of all European civilizations. The decoration in all the great halls at Drottningholm carried significant symbolism and propaganda. Johan Philip Lemke, the battle-scene painter, depicted the Palatine kings’ war deeds in the two galleries, while in the state rooms Ehrenstrahl glorified the Holstein-Gottorp dynasty’s good deeds for the people and the kingdom. The architecture and furnishings combine to make a grand testimonial to the greatness of the dynasty and of the fatherland.

Drottningholm Palace Staircase
Drottningholm Palace Staircase

Upon Tessin’s death in 1681, work on Drottningholm’s interiors was taken over by his son, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728), who completed them with great respect for his father’s earlier achievements. For the garden, Tessin the Younger designed a new general scheme that was a free interpretation of André Le Nôtre’s landscaping at Vaux-le-Vicomte and Versailles. As if by magic, the architect transformed the rocky, swampy land surrounding the palace into parterres, bosks, fountains and allées. Particularly striking are the many bronze sculptures by the Dutch mannerist artist Adriaen de Vries, which were, in fact, plunder from Prague and Denmark’s Fredriksborg castle. (Today they have been replaced by copies, and the originals reside in a nearby museum).

Well before Louis XIV transformed Versailles and before the construction of such famous palaces as Schönbrunn in Vienna and Charlottenburg in Berlin, Drottningholm Palace was heralded throughout Europe for this artistic achievements. Its balanced composition and magnificent stairwell astounded foreign visitors, and Drottningholm came to stand as a symbol of Sweden’s newly acquired position of power among nations.

Hedvig Eleonora used the palace as a summer residence until her death in 1715. After her death, Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden and King Frederick I of Sweden held court at the palace in the summer. In 1744, the palace was given as a gift from King Frederick I to the then Crown Princess, later Queen of Sweden, Lovisa Ulrika of Prussia when she married Adolf Frederick of Sweden, who became King of Sweden in 1751.

From the very beginning, Lovisa Ulrika demonstrated exceptional aptitude as a patron, becoming deeply engaged in the remodelling of the Drottningholm. Her first concern was the extension of building that was to provide modern private apartments for her family.

Where to place these apartments was a dilemma that Carl Hårleman ingeniously solved by adding a second floor to the one-story wings that connected the central building of the palace to the two round towers at the north and south ends. These additions (replacing what had earlier been open roof-terraces) integrated well with Nicodemus Tessin the Elder’s work, though the overall character of the palace changed slightly. The original, rhythmic counterbalance of the imposing central building, lower wings and terminating towers was transformed into a single, cohesive composition of even more monumental aspect.

Hårleman’s interiors at Drottningholm resemble those he designed for the Royal Palace, even though they were planned for different living conditions. The emphasis at Drottningholm was more on private life than on public duties. From a forthright exchange of ideas among the commissioner, Lovisa Ulrika and, most likely, her personal aesthetic advisor, Carl Gustav Tessin, Hårleman was able to create a more restrained but elegant environment that was equally well suited to family life, entertaining and study.

In the treatment of the interiors, decoration was generally concentrated around the windows, doors and chimney-pieces. Otherwise, many of the rooms were given only basic wall treatment, such as a dado with circular and rectangular fields below, and above this, fielded panels (that is, panels framed by a system of raised mouldings) of textile. This was the approach in the newly furnished Green Cabinet, in which green silk damask was adorned with portraits of the princess’ Prussian family. In this room, a large mirror with a heavily carved and gilt frame was also mounted between the two windows. Crowning the mirror is a still life of a hare and a partridge painted in 1739 by the French artist Jean-Baptiste Oudry.

Drottningholm Palace – The Green Drawing Room

Originally part of the dowager queen’s state apartment, the Green Cabinet, as well as her splendid bedchamber and audience room now constituted the core of Lovisa Ulrika’s private apartment. This was situated in the northern part of the palace’s main building and in a second story newly added to the northwest wing. To these three formal rooms, the crown princess also adjoined a suite of more intimate rooms. One – formerly Lovisa Ulrika’s dressing room – was embellished throughout with blue boiserie panels and garlands. The chandelier and silvered bronze appliqués were purchased in 1754 in Paris. A stove, with blue Swedish tile decoration from the Rorstrand ceramics factory, stood in a niche on the limestone floor.

Drottningholm Palace – The Chinese Drawing Room – Gobelin tapestry, gift from Louis XVI
Drottningholm Palace – The Chinese Drawing Room

Originally intended to house a portrait gallery, the oblong room in the palace’s north wing facing the gardens instead became Lovisa Ulrika’s Natural History Cabinet; the great botanist Carl Linnaeus helped the princess to organise her collections here during the summer of 1751. From this room, one could reach to the northwest pavilion, which was fitted out as a cabinet d’étude (study library). Though it was completely rebuilt after just a few years, Hårleman’s original drawings give an accurate picture of its strict classical appearance, with glass-fronted bookshelves incorporated between pilasters spanned by arches. In a 1748 letter to her sister, Lovisa Ulrika described her favourite room: “Here at my home Drottningholm, I live like a philosopher. If you could see me at this moment, you would find me sitting in my Cabinet which I have commissioned, with all my books on shelves that are built into the wall and equipped with doors of glass, all gilt and carved with ornament. The overdoors depict the attributes of the sciences; there is a mirror over the chimneypiece, and below are bronze sculptures from antiquity. In the centre of the room there is a table of a completely new type that has come from France and is fitted out with a hutch that supports a clock. It is at this very table that I now write to you; a barometer is hanging by one window and by the other is a sundial. A lovely chair completes my description and it is sitting in this chair that I make these observations.”

Next to the library, in the section that connects the palace’s northwest and northeast wings, is the Coin Cabinet, which Carl Hårleman designed to house the large coin and medal collection that Lovisa Ulrika acquired from Carl Gustav Tessin in 1746. The cabinet walls were panelled and faux-painted as walnut and embellished with carved, gilt rococo ornaments, trofée groups, and portrait medallions. Similar motifs were repeated on the bronze hardware on the eight tall, walnut cupboards in which the collections were stored. Prototypes for this interior could be found in Germany in the library at Sanssouci, the country palace in Postdam of Lovisa Ulrika’s brother, King Frederick II (ie, the Great), as well as in the royal palace in Turin, Italy. The Coin Cabinet at Drottningholm was the first in a suite of display rooms that Lovisa Ulrika ordered for the use of scholarly purposes. The others were completed later by Hårleman’s successors.

Drottningholm Palace – The Hall of State

One of Adolf Fredrik’s and Lovisa Ulrika’s primary contributions to Drottningholm is the Chinese Pavilion, constructed in a wooded area adjacent to the baroque garden. In the 18th century, a fascination with East Asia spread through Europe, and it is reflected in this pavilion. The Swedish royal couple associated themselves with other European rulers who showed this interest by erecting special buildings a la chinoise – in the Chinese style. Again, counterparts are to be found elsewhere in Europe. Closely related to the Drottningholm Chinese pavilion was the now-lost Maison sans Gene at Schloss Augustburg outside Cologne. Another German prototype was erected at Schloss Wilhelmsthal by the count of Hessen-Kassel. In France, meanwhile, Jossigny-en-Brie was built outside Paris in 1743; this example has especially close similarities to the Drottningholm pavilion in both construction and decor. Soon after Jossigny, still another Chinese pavilion went up, this one at Sanssouci. During the 1750s, when King Frederick was planning his Chinese teahouse, he and his sister Lovisa Ulrika were regularly exchanging letters.

The Chinese Pavilion to be seen today at Drottningholm replaced a smaller version that was given to Queen Lovisa Ulrika on July 24, 1753 as a birthday present from her husband. The king’s gift was a wood frame structure made in Stockholm and shipped on barges to Drottningholm, where it was secretly assembled in an overgrown area just south of the formal gardens. The pavilion comprised five rooms and its façades were painted to imitate woven reeds. Its roof was covered with pleated cloth and hung with tassels and lanterns. The main building was flanked by smaller wings. Several days after the dedication, the queen wrote in delight to her mother, Sofia Dorothea of Prussia, “Everything is distinguished with the magnificence and good taste of the one who presented the gift.” The new superintendent, Carl Johan Cronstedt, is believed to have been the last architect involved with the pavilion’s construction, although he based his design on that of his predecessor, Carl Hårleman.

Plans to expand and beautify the site around the pavilion came under consideration early on. The natural environment complemented the desired informal character and closeness to nature, but the royal couple also yearned for something more lasting. After only a few years, they had the site expanded to include two additional pavilions. One was the king’s pavilion, which Adolf Fredrik used for a woodworking shop with a lathe; the other, called Confidencen from the French confidence, functioned as an intimate dining room. By means of an ingenious rig of ropes and pulleys, the dining table – already set – could be raised from the basement and presented to the assembled guests. With these additions, the architectural standard rose.

In the damp of its woodland setting, however, the original pavilion was vulnerable to mould and decay, and it was torn down in 1763 to make way for the current masonry building. The architect responsible for the new drawings was Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz (1717-1796).

In Adelcrantz’s plan, the new corps de logis consisted of a two-story main building connected to a pair of lower pavilions by curved galleries augmented by two freestanding wings; the whole assemblage enclosed a courtyard. On the outside, the new structure was to blend with the king’s pavilion and Confidencen. These in turn were stylistically anchored to the first main building, which allowed many original elements to be carried over into the new construction. The roof, of sheet metal bent in an undulating tent-like pattern, was painted green and appears to be supported by pilasters resembling the trunk of palm trees. Yellow dragons brace the balcony over the main entrance, and urns crown the chimneys on the roof. One the stucco façade, Adelcrantz replaced the wall panels’ woven-reed pattern with solid red panels decorated with lighter meander borders and spatter-painted, marbleized frames. The red panels were varnished to achieve a glossy surface to resemble Chinese lacquer. For all its exotic motifs, though, the façade has also been compared to rococo interiors, with its wall panels of glossy silk surrounded by faux-marble panels.

Chinese Pavilion
Chinese Pavillion, interior

Responsibility for designing the interiors fell to Jean Eric Rehn, whose ideas for colourful, richly varied furnishings came from many sources. A collection of engravings called Designs of Chinese Buildings, compiled by the Swedish/English architect William Chambers and published in 1757, is often thought to have provided much of the inspiration. The collection was said to derive from Chambers’ own interpretation of buildings in Canton, but it also shows clear traces of European classicism. While Sir William’s patterns were used for the décor in some of the rooms, engravings by the French artist Francois Boucher inspired the wall paintings that Johan Pasch did in a few of the other rooms, such as the Blue and Green salons in the pavilions at each end of the curved galleries. The strong colours, as well as the inclusion of East Asian objects and materials such as lacquer, silk and porcelain, contributed to the “Chinese” character of the rooms; some of these were newly acquired, others were already in the royal collections. Otherwise, it is the connection to French interior decoration that is most obvious – for example, in the disciplined vestibule, the marble hall with its polished stucco walls painted different colours, and the oval drawing room, with its large framed panels and restrained white and gold décor.

That the Chinese Pavilion is more characteristic of Europe than of Asia was clear at least to one 18th century visitor, Nathaniel Wraxall, who had spent time in Canton as a cargo merchant on an English ship. The pavilion, he wrote, is built “in that taste which we usually call the Chinese; though unless a few [costumed] Mandarins and Vases from China form this style, of which we really know scarce anything, it may just as well be called a European structure, where whimsy and caprice form the predominant character and spread a grotesque air through the whole.” Even if the exotic mood at Drottningholm was only superficial, it still helped to keep the dream of the Far East alive.

Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz had been discouraged from becoming an architect by his father, Goran Josuae Adelcrantz, the former city architect in Stockholm and a colleague of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. Nonetheless, Adelcrantz attended lectures at the Royal Drawing Academy (Kungliga ritareakademien) while working for the government as a clerk. After his father’s death, Adelcrantz was free to depart Sweden for a long study tour to France and Italy (1739-43). Later, while working with Carl Hårleman at the Royal Palace, he made other trips as well. In 1757, he was made superintendent, a position he held for almost forty years.

Drottningholm Theatre – Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz portrait
Drottningholm Theatre – Adelcrantz’s Bedroom

While Adelcrantz was completing his drawings for the Chinese Pavilion, Queen Lovisa Ulrika, known for her talents as a flautist and composer, asked him to construct a new court theatre at Drottningholm, the older one having burned down in 1762. The story goes that the day of the incident, the audience assumed that a performer’s cries of “Fire!” were part of the show.

This was not Adelcrantz’s first experience with the special design challenges of theatres. Less than a decade before, when a French theatre company arrived in Stockholm, he had been called upon to contrive a small stage at Ulriksdal Palace on short notice. Expectations for the theatre at Drottningholm, however, were higher.

Drottningholm Theatre

Adelcrantz thought big, his edifice proved to be twice as big as the original theatre. The exterior facade is typically Nordic in its austerity. A central pediment is the only ‘decorative’ element. Its position at the entrance to the royal residence’s gardens adds much to the general feeling of tranquillity. Time seems to have stopped, far from the bustle of the capital.

Clockwise: Queen’s Pavilion, The Lord Chamberlain’s Wing, Drottningholm Theatre, Hunting Pavilion (not visible, now the theatre shop) and the Church Pavillion

The drawings and plans for the Drottningholm theatre occupied Adelcrantz until 1764, when preparations for the construction finally got under way. Despite the risk of fire, the new theatre was built of wood and finished with plaster. Mindful of the fire that destroyed the previous theatre, Adelcrantz provided five staircases that allowed a quick exit if required. The southern half of the length of the building houses the theatre salon with suites of rooms arranged around it; the northern half was the stage area, with performers’ and stage crews’ accommodations and studios. The style of the exterior is a restrained classicism, while the interiors consist of a series of charming rococo reception rooms with hand-painted wall-paper. The foyer, designed in 1791 by the French painter Louise-Jean Desprez is minimalist. The salon, with its stalls, can be characterised as a form of rococo classicism. The room is held together by sixteen Corinthian pilasters and a robust entablature that leads to the proscenium. The marbleized wall decoration, in pale pink, yellow and grey, is painted on fabric. And the console brackets seeming to support the balcony boxes are constructed of papier-mache. The ornament sculptor, Adrien Masreliez, renowned from the Royal Palace project, was responsible for the refined interior ornamentation. The front curtain, by court painter Johan Pasch, depicts Minerva, the goddess of the arts, bearing a floral festoon in the shape of Louisa’s crest.

Drottningholm Theatre Foyer
Drottningholm Theatre

Prior to opening, the theatre’s acoustics were tested by the royal family themselves. Prince Gustav stood on the stage and recited excerpts from French dramas, a foretaste of his involvement in developing a national Swedish opera and theatre company. Although not fully completed until November 1766, enough work on the stage and auditorium had been completed for it to be inaugurated with a play on Louisa’s birthday in July. The first opera performance – Psyché (1678) by Jean-Baptiste Lully – did not take place until October 28.

After its dedication in July 1766, the theatre held a central position in court life. It was filled not only with actors – who performed, ate and slept there – but also with members of the court who lived there. As superintendent and project supervisor for the French theatre troupe, Adelcrantz had the use of a suite located to the right of the main entrance and consisting of an antechamber, bedchamber and servants’ room.

Drottningholm Theatre
Drottningholm Theatre

If Drottningholm is now considered one of the most beautiful opera houses in the world, it is largely because of its auditorium, an intimate, tastefully decorated room with stucco pilasters, which allows an ideal relationship between stage and audience. With the exception of a few scattered boxes, there are no balconies, but its amphitheatre orchestra has 454 seats and spans the same depth as the stage, creating a perfectly symmetrical effect. The royal box, surprisingly located in the first rows of the orchestra, is immediately noticeable. Its Louis XV chairs are in pointed contrast with the spartan benches intended for the public. Originally, a divider could be set up between the royal boxes and the benches. At a depth of 65 feet, the stage is one of the deepest in Sweden. Depending on the production, spectators might see one of the 30 original sets, beautiful painted backdrops with subtle trompe l’oeil effects.

Drottningholm Theatre
Drottningholm Theatre

A visit to the theatre’s wings reveals period stage machinery conceived by Donato Stopani. Pulleys, ropes, cable drums, capstans, you’d think you were on a ship. Everything creaks and groans as the cloud cars, trap doors and the flying machines are set in motion. The theatre also allows directors to stage historical re-enactments with period sets, costumes, and blocking. Its acoustics are ideal for period instruments.

In the 18th century, the theatre employed Italian stage machinist Donato Stopani to design the stage machinery, based on the innovations of the great Italian stage designer Giacomo Torelli. A capstan turned by six stagehands controls two sets of traction lines that draw one set of side flats into the wings, simultaneously pulling a second set onto the stage. Painted clouds can drop from the flies, and gods and goddesses – so important in the operas depicting Classical myths – can descend from above on a rope-drawn cloud chariot or zig-zag across the stage on smaller clouds.

Performers and objects can ascend from or descend below stage using the three trapdoors. At the rear of the stage, five horizontal spirals are turned to create the illusion of ocean waves. A stage flat, painted like a ship, can even be pulled through the rolling waves. Built into the proscenium is a box with stones, which when rocked creates the sound of thunder. In the wings, a wooden cylinder is turned against a canvas sheet to simulate the sound of howling wind.

Entering the Slottsteater in Drottningholm, a few miles from Stockholm, is like stepping into a time machine. The theatre, the machinery, and the stage sets have been conserved exactly as they were at the inauguration in 1766. Moreover, the ingenious original stage equipment, such as ropes and pulleys can still, to an audience’s amazement, evoke thunder, whistling winds and crushing waves. Only the candles have been replaced by electric lightbulbs (which perfectly reproduce the soft light of the period). Thus the theatre is an ideal setting for baroque and classical music, which is why Ingmar Bergman shot his opera-film The Magic Flute here.

After Adolf Frederick died in 1771, Louisa could no longer afford to live at Drottningholm Palace and the theatre was rarely used. In 1777, Drottningholm Slottsteater was taken over by Louisa’s son King Gustav III, who brought his Swedish opera company of about 150 members there. Gustav III adored performances and amusements, and he loved to help plan them. He suggested décor and costumes and even coached performers and played a part in some plays. Gustav III also expected his courtiers to mingle with the performers – whether they wanted to mix with mere commoners was irrelevant.

After Gustav III’s ascension, members of the public were admitted to the theatre, and French plays, pageants and masked balls were held in the theatre and palace grounds. Gustav III made one major alteration to the theatre. He wanted to be able to hold banquets and receptions at performances and in 1791 he commissioned his favourite theatre artist and designer to build a dining room overlooking a new English style garden. Louis-Jean Desprez added a suite of rooms leading into the larger Salon pour Les Festins et Les Ballets, later called the Déjeuner Salon. The salon displayed the antique sculptures Gustav III had brought back from a trip to Italy, and was often used for concerts by favourite artists. Sadly, the king would enjoy the expanded theatre for only a few months, as he was assassinated early the following year. The salon was never fully completed and it was only restored in the 1930s, when the theatre was brought back to life.

After Gustav III’s death, theatrical activity at the court quickly declined. The court resided at Drottningholm Palace each summer, but fewer performances were given at the theatre. During the following century, the theatre was used infrequently, only two performances are known to have been given, in 1854 and 1858. The stage machinery and scenery were left in place, and adjoining rooms and living quarters were used to accommodate members of the court or the military. The theatre building underwent some improvements, with restoration of the living quarters.

Then, in 1921, Agne Beijer, an assistant at the royal library, went to the disused theatre in search of a painting. Passing through a dark, narrow passages, he found himself on stage surrounded by the still intact theatre machinery. “To put it into working condition, the only requirement were coils of rope for … the pulleys,” Beijer recalled.

Obtaining permission to rescue the old theatre, Beijer had electricity installed. Yellow coloured lights approximating candlelight were inserted in the chandeliers, which dated to 1766. Beijer found over 30 complete sets and many props as well as the front curtain. Once new ropes had been positioned, the stage machinery moved as silently and quickly as it had done almost two centuries before.

In 1991, the Royal Domain of Drottningholm (including the theatre) was added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List, and its preservation is now carefully controlled. Drottningholm Slottsteater’s public opening seasons are limited, and guided tours are regulated to reduce the impact on the fragile building. Only eight to ten performances of two or three operas are given each summer in the theatre.

The interiors and furnishings at Drottningholm Palace had been left uncompleted after Carl Hårleman’s death. The completion became one of Jean Eric Rehn’s main commissions. The suite of furnishings that Rehn designed here during the 1760s marked a breakthrough for the early Gustavian style in Sweden. His first project at Drottningholm was a new library for the queen’s growing collection of books; this was to occupy the oblong room in the northwest wing that until now had functioned as Lovisa Ulrika’s Natural History Cabinet. In a succession of proposals, the architect tested an increasingly radical neoclassical style. In the end, the drawing that the queen accepted and that was eventually followed showed a moderate and soft form of classicism. Observers often note that a major source of Rehn’s inspiration was the great neoclassical work, Receuil elementaire d’architecture (Elementary Collection of Architecture) of 1757-72 by the French architect-engraver, Jean-Francois de Neufforge; but Rehn’s interior appointments still had distinct rococo characteristics. This was actually typical for Rehn, whose work often resulted in a blend of classical and rococo elements – a combination that, under his direction, had a particular and unique elegance and refinement.

Drottningholm Palace – The Library

The library at Drottningholm is considered one of Sweden’s most beautiful interiors. One side of the room is made up of a series of French windows with views toward the baroque garden; the opposite side consists of built-in book-shelves separated by Corinthian pilasters. Below the ceiling, everything is held together by friezelike panels bearing Queen Lovisa Ulrika’s monogram alternating with the three crowns of the lesser national coat-of-arms and a cornice of festoons with Latin inscriptions and images of ancient philosophers in medallions. The repetition of forms and the interplay between cool and warm colours – pearl grey and gold against cedar wood and the brown leather of book bindings – give the room a pleasing harmony. Crowning the doors and windows are lunettes with plaster reliefs of female allegorical figures most likely modelled in the studio of the French-born sculptor Pierre Hubert L’Archeveque. The craftsmanship in the library is of the highest quality; Rehn had been assisted by such leading Swedish artisans as master carpenter Lorentz Nordin and ornament sculptor Adrien Masreliez.

After the new library was completed, the space in the northwest corner pavilion that had earlier served as the queen’s workroom and study library needed to be modernized and adapted for a new use. The Marble Cabinet (Marmorkabinettet) as it later came to be called still retains the original décor based on Rehn’s drawings from 1765.

The point of departure for Rehn’s redecoration of this room was a pair of antique green marble columns in the queen’s collection. Using these, Rehn created a heavy Ionic aedicule and placed in it a bronze urn – a decorative element commonly used in neoclassicism – designed after an antique model. Contrasting with this severe creation, which in fact disguised a tile stove, were the smooth, marbleized, painted walls of the room in pale colours. Two tall built-in book-shelves and a desk made for the queen in 1770 by Georg Haupt, Sweden’s foremost cabinetmaker and marquetry craftsman, confirm that the room retained its use as a workroom well after the new library was completed.

The Marble Cabinet conveys a more severe tone than is normally seen in Rehn’s designs. The two connecting rooms in the north cross wing, the Mineral Cabinet (Mineraliekabinettet) and the new Natural History Cabinet (Naturaliekabinettet) that were fitted out to house Lovisa Ulrika’s collections are more characteristic of Rehn’s early Gustavian style. Both rooms have marbleized panelling with precise rectangular fields. The National History Cabinet, with its glass-fronted display cabinets, is adorned with friezes of laurel garlands and portrait medallions, by Sweden’s prominent sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel, of famous contemporary Swedish scientists (including, of course, the botanist Carl Linnaeus). The Mineral Cabinet has imposing overdoors made in 1768 by sculptor Johan Ljung who ornamented them with seashells, corals, coins and medallions – in other words, examples of the types of objects in Lovisa Ulrika’s museum rooms.

Drottningholm Palace

Kungliga Nallebjörnarat på Kungliga Operan

Royal Opera House Stockholm

Little bears are the Royal Swedish Opera to see the premiere of Cinderella.

La Cenerentola, ossia La bontà in trionfo (Cinderella, or Goodness Triumphant) is an operatic dramma giocoso in two acts by Gioachino Rossini. The libretto was written by Jacopo Ferretti, based on the fairy tale Cendrillon by Charles Perrault. The opera was first performed in Rome’s Teatro Valle on 25 January 1817. Directed by Rossini himself, the composer prophesied that the production would take over the entire continent in spite of its poor initial reception by critics. He was right.

Gioachino Rossini

Rossini composed La Cenerentola when he was 25 years old, following the success of The Barber of Seville the year before. La Cenerentola, which he completed in a period of three weeks, is considered to have some of his finest writing for solo voice and ensembles. Rossini saved some time by reusing an overture from La gazzetta and part of an aria from The Barber of Seville and by enlisting a collaborator, Luca Agolini, who wrote the secco recitatives and three numbers (Alidoro’s Vasto teatro è il mondo, Clorinda’s Sventurata! and the chorus Ah, della bella incognita). The facsimile edition of the autograph has a different aria for Alidoro, Fa’ silenzio, odo un rumore; this seems to have been added by an anonymous hand for an 1818 production. For an 1820 revival in Rome, Rossini wrote a bravura replacement, La, del ciel nell’arcano profondo.

In Cinderella we break through to a woman who truly is her own person. Rossini’s Cinderella falls in love with the prince when he’s still disguised as his own valet, and we love her because when given the choice, she still chooses the valet she loves over the wealthy and powerful trappings of the faux prince.

Based on Charles Perrault’s version of the fairy-tale but without the magic elements (no fairy godmother, no pumpkin or mice and no glass slipper), Rossini’s witty version is an opera-buffa, which features some dazzling composition for voice. No glass slipper, but Johanna Rudström’s Angelina still finds her prince (Don Ramiro), sung by Ole Aleksander Bang, in this sparkling performance conducted by Jean-Cristophe Spinosi. The Prince’s tutor Alidoro, having spotted the heroine’s essential goodness, enables Angelina to go to the ball, despite opposition from her unkind sisters and greedy father.

»What is a ball at the palace after all?« Probably absolutely wonderful. The severe Don Magnifico (John Erik Eleby) has two daughters and a stepdaughter, Angelina (Cinderella). Destitute, he dreams of a rich suitor for one of his daughters, and everything is on the line when the prince announces a ball.

Although Cendrillon inspired Rossini’s La Cenerentola the composer’s fertile imagination transformed it. Rossini’s exuberant re-telling of the fairy tale avoids the sentimentality associated with Disney’s version of the Brothers Grimm’s Cinderella but it certainly doesn’t shy away from the cruelty. Rossini’s ingenious, untamed music tells a very human story about kindness, forgiveness and generosity. The male chorus wraps up over two-and-a-half hours of sparkling music and visual fantasy with the moral: “Envy and pride are vanquished, and goodness wins the day”.

La Cenerentola, Kungliga Operan

The production we are watching is the stunning and highly acclaimed production that premiered at Opera Queensland in Brisbane, Australia in 2013 – and has since taken the world by storm. The original production was commissioned by, designed for and created by Opera Queensland and New Zealand Opera. Inspired by vaudeville, Charles Dickens and Tim Burton, director Lindy Hume and set designer Dan Potra have created a colourful, romantic production in which goodness triumphs in the end. Lindy Hume does not shy away from the firmer themes of fairness, and cruelty versus goodness, that pervade the various retellings of the story.

Lindy Hume

Charles Dickens, with his notions of social justice, was popular shortly after Rossini wrote Cinderella, so Lindy Hume’s choice to reset the work in Dickensian London has inspired designer Dan Potra. He has created a Dickensian chocolate box set for the production that reflects the romantic side of La Cenerentola. There’s an Olde Curiosity Shoppe, allusions to the gardens of Brideshead Revisited’s Castle Howard, and a nod toward Downton Abbey, where the servants are not always what they seem.

Dan Potra
Cinderella, Dan Potra set design

From her cast Hume extracted a nimble, well-timed ensemble effort, and her overall concept clearly won the audience’s lavish enthusiasm from beginning to end. Dan Potra’s costumes tended to storybook vivid: who could resist the stepsister’s neon green and red dresses, not to mention Dandini’s blazing red “look, I’m a prince!” suit? Potra’s design of Don Magnifico’s two-story emporium was as crammed with sumptuous detail as his stylized garden at the Prince’s summer palace was skimpy. Moving the scenes at the Prince’s residence outdoors muted the dramatic effect of Cinderella’s surprise appearance at the Prince’s elaborate ball, which we were forced to imagine rather than see on the stage.

Don Magnifico Emporium
Ole Aleksander Bang as Don Ramiro

Lindy Hume has remounted the opera in New Zealand in 2015, Leipzig and San Diego in 2016, with the same directorial concept and eye-popping visual design.

Cinderella, New Zealand 2015
Cinderella, Leipzig 2016
Cinderella, San Diego 2016

Little bears are spellbound and totally focused on the stage! Lindy Hume’s stage direction makes use of almost every kind of comedy that can be invoked on the opera stage and she keeps varying each artist’s movements so that nothing is ever repeated. If they look away for even a moment they might miss something! With the opera sung in Italian and the surtitles in Swedish, it was easy to focus on the action while enjoying the spellbinding music.

Another stunning performance

Swedish architect Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz is known for the exceptional theatre he designed for the royal residence in Drottningholm. What is less well known is that some fifteen years after the latter edifice’s inauguration, King Gustav III of Sweden charged the same architect with building an opera house in the very centre of Stockholm. All eyewitness accounts agree that it was a grandiose structure with two facades, respectively overlooking Gustav Adolf Square and the canal. The plans for this building reminiscent of those by Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, were allegedly developed in close collaboration between Adelcrantz and Gustav III himself – as a proper enlightned king, the Swedish sovereign was a great lover of art.

The King’s passion for opera drove him to create one of Europe’s greatest operatic centres, emulating his uncle, Frederick the Great, in attracting the best artists and fostering Swedish singers who would become renowned throughout the world.

Becoming king in 1771, Gustav III nurtured music in Sweden much as his famous uncle did in Prussia. He founded the Royal Academy of Music and had the Bollhuset games court converted into the Royal Opera, inaugurating it with Thetis och Pelee (1773) by Francesco Uttini, the composer and director of the theatre at Drottningholm. Thetis och Pelee used a Swedish libretto by the king himself and starred Swedish singers Elizabeth Olin and Carl Stenborg. Foreign operas were given in Swedish, including Christoph Willibald Gluck’s influential reform opera Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) in 1773, eight months before it reached Paris.

The Royal Opera House was inaugurated on September 30, 1782, with Cora och Alonzo (1782) by Johann Gottlieb Naumann. Gustav III’s new opera house hosted a variety of entertainments, including masked balls; the king was fatally wounded at one of these balls in 1792. The king’s death inspired operas by Daniel Auber (Gustave III, ou Le bal masque, 1883), Saverio Mercadante (Il reggente, 1843) and most famously, Giuseppe Verdi (Un ballo in maschera, 1861). Lars Johan Werle’s opera Tintomara, commissioned for the 200th anniversary of the Kunglica Operan in 1973, also features Gustav III’s murder.

Gustav IV Adolf had an understandable aversion to the Kunglica Operan because of his father’s murder, and he may have been relieved when it was used as a military hospital during Sweden’s war against Finland, which began in 1808. Gustav IV Adolf was deposed a year later, and his successor, Charles XIII, reopened the theatre.

Swedish soprano Jenny Lind sang at the Kunglica Operan in 1838. She went on to become one of Sweden’s – and the world’s – greatest singers and was hailed as the “Swedish Nightingale”. In 1881, the theatre came under state control and was run as a company. The century-old building was considered unsatisfactory for staging modern works, and its halls and foyers too narrow and uncomfortable. A proposal to refurbish the theatre while keeping the original façade was made, but an appointed consortium commissioned the architect Axel Johan Anderberg to plan and build an entirely new theatre. And so a masterpiece of Swedish architectural heritage disappeared, to be replaced by the current Kungliga Operan.

The cost of the building would be borne jointly by a grant from the City of Stockholm and the sale of 500,000 bonds. The old theatre was demolished in 1891, and it proved to be not as dilapidated as first thought – dynamite was required to blast away the still solid walls. Anderberg made a special tour of European theatres before commencing the project, and during the seven years required to construct the new Kunglica Operan he also designed a theatre in Karlstad. Anderberg also designed Stockholm’s Oscarsteatern in 1906, the city’s main venue for operettas and musicals.

Arvfurstens Palace, across Gustav Adolfs Torg from the opera house. Designed by Erik Palmstedt and completed in 1794, the palace was originally the private residence of Princess Sophia Albertina. It gives an indication of what the original opera house looked like.

The new opera house was inaugurated in 1898. The architect adopted an overly safe, rather monumental neoclassical style. The building’s massive footprint was largely intended to allow for colossal public areas. With a vestibule, grand staircase and two foyers (the court did not mix with mere mortals), the style was intentionally demonstrative and clearly inspired by the already legendary Palais Garnier in Paris. Anderberg worked with artists including Axel Jungstedt and Carl Larsson for the paintings in the foyers and on the staircase.

Royal staircase
Royal Foyer
The grand staircase

The majestic marble staircase of the Kunglica Operan was based on the grand staircase designed by Charles Garnier for Paris’ Palais Garnier. The Guldfoajén (Golden Foyer) was lavishly decorated with gold stucco and varnished compounds resembling marble. The ceiling paintings were framed in richly gilded moldings and massive crystal chandeliers were installed. Separate reception rooms were built for the king and queen. The gilded auditorium featured a central ceiling painting by Vicke Andrén and a red-velvet stage curtain bearing the royal crest.

Golden Foyer
Golden Foyer
Golden Foyer

Anderberg was also required to include spaces that could be rented as businesses to help finance the opera house. The oak-panelled Operakällaren restaurant takes its name from the tavern in the cellar of the previous theatre. The Operabaren (Opera Bar) was added in 1905 and features ceiling paintings by Andrén, recalling his paintings for the opera house’s main auditorium.

The theatre holds 1,200 seats divided between the orchestra, two balconies and a large amphitheatre gallery. An eye-catching succession of colonnades at the gallery level forms an appealing pattern.

Though it lacked audacious architecture, the new theatre quickly distinguished itself by its programming. In 1907, it held the highly anticipated Stockholm premiere of Wagner’s Ring. Since then, the Wagnerian repertoire has always been superbly served by Swedish opera singers, ranging from Birgit Nilsson to Nina Stemme. The Kungliga Operan has also regularly highlighted contemporary music, both Swedish and international. It was notably here that Ligeti’s Le grand macabre, whose themes of death and sexuality make it one of the most scandalous operas in the repertoire, was premiered in 1978.

Richard Wagner’s Ring Cycle (1876) was given at the Kungliga Operan for the first time in March 1907 under the direction of the Swedish bass Johannes Elmblad, who had sung in the world premiere of the Ring Cycle at Bayreuth in 1876. On his return to Stockholm, Elmblad had become the director of productions at Kungliga Operan, the first in a line of Swedish singers who found fame at Bayreuth and then returned to the Kungliga Operan as singers and administrators.

Bass-baritone Joel Berglund was director between 1949 and 1956, followed by tenor Set Svanholm, who had made his debut at the theatre in 1930. Becoming an acclaimed Wagnerian tenor at Bayreuth, Stockholm and other major opera houses, Svanholm also sang Peter Grimes in Benjamin Britten’s opera at the Kungliga Operan in 1946, the first performance outside Britain after its premiere in 1945. Svanholm was director from 1956 to 1963. In 2009, another renowned Swedish Wagnerian, mezzo-soprano Birgitta Svendén, became artistic director, the Kungliga Operan’s first female director.

During the 1950s and 19560s, the opera house was home to some of the world’s greatest singers including Svanholm, Jussi Björling, Birgit Nilsson, Elisabeth Söderström and Nicolai Gedda. In the 21st century, the Kungliga Operan boasts a new generation of Swedish singers including the Wagnerian sopranos Katarina Dalayman and Nina Stemme. Stemme sang Isolde in Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde (1865) there in 2004, an opera not heard at the theatre since 1977.

The Kungliga Operan was listed as a heritage site in 1935, but in 1954 the National Board of Public Buildings approved building works that would reinstate a feature from Adelcrantz’s old theatre and introduce a new performance space to Anderberg’s new theatre. Architects Peter Celsing, Bengt H. Johnson and Nils Erik Martin Tesch were commissioned to renovate and add to the restaurant facilities, to create permanent banquet and reception rooms on the roof terrace and to renovate the public areas.

They also remodelled the side terrace, adding on to it a flat-roofed annex housing the chamber theatre, the Rotunden. With only four rows of seats, the Rotunden opened on May 26, 1964, with Drömmen Om Thérèse by Lars Johan Werle. The opera was specially composed for the space and performed in the round; film projection was used to position the musicians along the walls behind the audience.

Celsing and Tesch also designed the garden terrace area looking at across the Norrström River to the royal palace. A more modest café, the Bakfickan, was also added to the existing Operakällaren restaurant.

Stage renovations were made in 1975 in time for the world premiere of the controversial Le Grand Macabre by György Ligeti in 1978. In the 1980s, newer stage machinery replaced the hydraulic systems, and in 1989 the public interiors and façades were restored. The gilding in the famous Golden Foyer, dulled mostly from cigar smoke, was laboriously rubbed clean with bread. The gilding on the mirror frames was replenished and the furniture was reupholstered in Florentine gold brocade supplied by the original manufacturer, who was still producing the same fabric!

The theatre is now capably managed by the Statens fastighetsverk (National Property Board) and since 1993 it has been forbidden to make any renovations or improvements that interfere with the original building’s appearance. The Rotunden was modernized in the 1990s, adapting to serve as an orchestra rehearsal space. Tapestry curtains that completely encircle the space were commissioned from architect and textile designer Ulrika Mårtensson. The chorus rehearsal space, orchestra pit and auditorium acoustics were also modified, and microphones were concealed in the chandelier for recording and broadcasting of performances.

The Operakällaren was renovated in 2006, without making any alterations to the original building. Architect Mårten Claesson said that the heritage regulations were so strict that they could not put a single nail into the panelled walls or touch the oak-coffered ceiling beyond modernizing the lights. The glassed-in veranda added by Celsing in 1955-61 had no protection status, so Claesson levelled the floor to ensure that the transition from the veranda to the restaurant appears uninterrupted. Further preservation of the theatre has been promised by Sweden’s Ministry of Culture.

With a long history of performing the standard repertoire, and particularly Wagnerian opera – which director Birgitta Svendén says particularly suits Swedish voices – the Kungliga Operan is set to continue the tradition for many years to come. As Svendén has observed: “Everyone I work with has something to contribute. It is my job to spark their creativity and talent and provide the best possible circumstances to bring it to fruition.”

A distinguished feature of the Stockholm opera house is its tradition of leadership by former singers, of whom Birgitta Svenden is the latest. In this nation where parity is a fundamental political issue, many women hold the top positions in cultural institutions. The opera has 550 permanent employees, including a company of twenty-five soloists and an orchestra of 107 musicians, which makes it one of the biggest Scandinavian symphony orchestras.

The opera makes everything in-house, ie all the sets and all the costumes.

Some of the 200,000 costumes at the opera house
Storage area for over 200 stage backdrops
Lift to bring sets up to stage – 8.4 metres tall, 2.4 metres wide

The opera is state-owned, with a generous budget. 85 percent of the budget comes from the state and 15 percent from sponsorship. In return for the generous state funding, the opera house has to stage several productions a year (about 17, opera and ballet), make them the best production ever and keep ticket prices low so everyone can afford to attend. Often, several productions are running in parallel. Currently, the opera house is showing Cinderella, Dracula and the Merry Widow. The opera house is also home to the Royal Swedish Ballet, whose former dancer Alicia Vikander is now a rising star in Hollywood.

With so many productions running at once, in so many different languages, the opera house uses a prompter. The opera house actually employs four prompters.

Prompter cubby hole 🙂
Prompter box at front of stage

King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia are not into opera or ballet but they attend a performance of each a year, to do their duty. Crown Princess Victoria on the other hand loves the opera and ballet, and attends a performance every couple of months or so. She chooses to sit in the audience! Incognito. If she uses the royal box, then it becomes a state affair with all the pomp and circumstance, full on security, etc, etc. Her security detail was not thrilled at the idea originally, but now it’s part of her personal schedule. And apparently the audience believes she is just someone who looks like the princess. The princess couldn’t possibly sit in the audience like that!

Royal box

We highly recommend the guided tour of the opera house. It is informative and entertaining and a simply delightful experience. Allow a couple of hours.

Sibelius at Koncerthuset Stockholm

Koncerthuset Stockholm

Home to the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra, the blue concert hall at Hötorget is one of Stockholm’s most recognisable buildings. It was designed by architect Ivar Tengbom during a period of expansion in the capital. Explaining his choice of colour for the Concert Hall, Ivar Tengbom said he wanted a blue ‘like condensed air’.

Stockholm Concert Hall

Konserthuset Stockholm is one of Sweden’s foremost architectural masterpieces. Opened in 1926, Konserthuset Stockholm was built in order to provide a base for the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra and host the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony, among other events.

The Stockholm Concert Society was formed in 1902 with the aim of arranging regular concerts in the capital. The orchestra then performed at the somewhat run-down Auditorium at Norra Bantorget, among other venues, and there was a growing need to find an independent base. After raising funds and organising a lottery, there was enough money to organise an architecture contest, which was won by Ivar Tengbom, the young architecture professor.

A site was chosen at Hötorget’s market stalls among the run-down, drab, low-rise buildings in the area, and a classical Greek temple would emerge in the honour of music, according to Tengbom’s firm vision. Konserthuset was constructed between 1923 and 1926. The building is one of Stockholm’s foremost examples of neoclassicism, an era when the spirit of democracy was strong, and drew stylistic inspiration from the cradle of democracy itself – Athens.

The venue’s ample, “democratic” audience capacity was unique at the time, with different social classes entering through the same door before taking their seats once inside. This was not the case, for example, at the Royal Dramatic Theatre and the Royal Swedish Opera, where those from different social backgrounds were kept apart.

Since opening, Konserthuset has been the base of the orchestra first known as the Stockholm Concert Society, which was later renamed the Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra. It has been called the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra since the start of the 1990s. The Nobel building envisioned by the Nobel Foundation at around the same time Konserthuset emerged was never built, and ever since 1926, the venue has played host to the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December each year.

Outside the hall’s entrance, visitors encounter a work which was designed to adorn the venue. Conceived by Carl Milles, the Orpheus Well sculpture group can be found on the stairway from Hötorget. It was opened in 1936 by the artist himself.

Orpheus Well sculpture, by Carl Milles

Most of the décor inside the imposing vestibule was designed by Einar Forseth, including the large mosaics in the floor and the stucco in the ceiling, which can also be found in the Main foyer further inside the building. In the Main foyer today stand Carl Milles’ statues depicting the four Muses, Erato, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore and Euterpe, which were previously located on the balconies behind the podium in the Main Hall until its restoration in the 1970s. The glass fittings and mirrors in the public spaces were designed by Simon Gate and Edward Hald, at Orrefors glassworks. In order to create a sense of daylight indoors, some of the fittings were made with lightly blue-toned glass.

Moreover, small sculptures created by Ansgar Almqvist can be found at the bottom of the banisters leading up to the Main Hall. In the staircase, there are also beautiful weavings by Elsa Gullberg, which were previously situated to the rear of the podium in the Main Hall before being relocated during its restoration.

All of the stucco reliefs in the ceilings and pillars, as well as the stucco composers’ portraits above the doors to the stalls in the Main Hall, were created by Nils Olsson and Robert Nilsson. Palestrina, Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven can be found in the left hand stalls, with Schubert, Schumann, Wagner, Bruckner, Brahms and Franck appearing on the right, with each one accompanied by a famous quote.

Ewald Dahlskog’s delightful, austere intarsia works, featuring playful, imaginative details, can be found on the first balcony on the doors to the Main Hall. Each door includes a history of instruments from all corners of the world. Dahlskog also painted the lintels which appear in the promenades on the second balcony.

Drawing inspiration from patterns used in the old carpets, textile artist Kajsa Melanton has produced new runners in the foyers around the first balcony. Melanton also designed the carpet in Gustaf V lounge as well as the curtains in the stalls promenades, known as the Dancing taburetes.

Throughout Konserthuset there is wonderful furniture made by Carl Malmsten, much of which was restored during the 1990s by students at the Carl Malmsten Centre for Woodworking and Design.

Koncerthuset Main Hall

Ivar Tengbom’s vision – and the original design of the Main Hall – involved the creation of a square; an open space, surrounded by columns, with the podium as the focal point. A forced perspective behind the podium, comprising four statues by Carl Milles in their own balconies, was intended to suggest a continuation into the fantasy Greek landscape.

The coarse, greyish brown colour scheme found on the walls of the stalls and along the podium transforms into yellow, increasingly lighter shades leading towards the ceiling (sky). The white sky ceiling, originally appearing between the decorous capitals of the columns, is framed by the second balcony’s golden coffer ceiling and the soft glow of the lights. Both the lights and the capitals of the columns in the hall are designed by the sculptor Ansgar Almquist.

Designed by the artist Einar Forseth, textiles were weaved at the venue itself by Elsa Gullberg’s weaving house as construction took place. Weavings hang from the balconies in the Main Hall, while curtains and carpets could be found in the foyers. However, most of these have been worn out over the years, with only some fragments remaining. With support from the Jacob Wallenberg and Prince Carl Gustaf foundations, Åke Livstedt has overseen the production of new textiles.

Koncerthuset Main Hall

A number of extensive renovations have seen the Main Hall change substantially, primarily acoustically and technologically. The major renovation carried out between 1971 and 1973 was overseen by Anders Tengbom, Ivar Tengbom’s son. The old wall and ceiling behind the podium were overhauled, and the statues removed, and to make room for essential technology and improve acoustics, the ceiling was made to look like a black velvet Mediterranean night rather than a sunny day. Moreover, due to acoustics issues and wear, some of the textiles hanging along the second balcony were also removed.

The next major change in the venue involved the construction of the organ. During the 1970s, considerable time and effort was devoted to the construction of a great organ in Konserthuset Stockholm. This was finally made possible thanks to generous donations, and the magnificent instrument was unveiled in 1982. Incorporating 6,100 pipes and 69 stops, the impressive instrument spans the entire wall above the choir loft. The longest organ pipe measures 11 metres, with the shortest just a few millimetres in length.

The Main Hall was given a further facelift in the summer and early autumn of 2001. All of the seats were replaced by new models, manufactured in England according to Tengbom’s original sketches. Thirty-two hydraulic lift tables were added to the podium, considerably improving flexibility for stage construction, and a series of technical and acoustic adjustments were carried out. The ventilation system was extensively renovated and modernised between 2007 and 2009, while further improvements were made to the acoustics in the Main Hall over the same period.

The Main Hall currently holds 1,782 people, spread across the stalls, first balcony, choir loft and second balcony.

Koncerthuset Main Hall

The stage area is overhauled for the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony, with the addition of flower arrangements and special textiles, including the so-called Royal covering. During the ceremony, the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra plays from the choir loft in order to accommodate the Royal personages and dignitaries on the podium.

Koncerthuset Grünewald Hall

The beautiful chamber music hall is named after Isaac Grünewald, who was responsible for the design. It has a magnificent Renaissance interior and features a warm ambience and intimate beauty. In just six months, the artist Isaac Grünewald filled the walls and ceilings with his flowingly sensual “body music”.

He drew inspiration from the grandly decorated rooms of Italian Renaissance palaces, with motifs evoking classical Greek myths and the history of music. The large ceiling painting depicts Apollo, god of the sun and music, grasping for the sun’s rays, which form the strings of a lyre. Beethoven’s features, among other things, can be discerned in the right hand corner at the front.

The walls are divided into sections of stucco pilasters by Gustav Cederwall. The lights are the originals and were designed by Robert Hult, at Tengbom Architects. Hult designed most of the lighting appearing in Konserthuset’s public spaces. Stronger lighting, such as spotlights and floodlights, was added later. The architectonically designed curtain was weaved by Elsa Gullberg in line with Tengbom’s vision, however, the original became worn and was replaced by a newly produced copy by Astrid Sampe.

The Grünewald Hall can accommodate up to 460 people.

The foyer in the Grünewald Hall is dominated by its distinctive carpet, spanning 76 square metres, which shows how Isaac Grünewald was inspired by the sun-baked Minoan culture on the island of Crete. The original carpet was hand-weaved at the Bror Höögs weaving house, outside Borås.

A copy of the original, which had become worn, was laid in 1987, and there was no carpet in the foyer for a number of years. The carpet is encircled by dark mahogany columns incorporating bronze capitals, supporting a white arched oval which is illuminated by lights concealed by gilded leaves.

Koncerthuset Aulin Auditorium

Up to 1993, it was known as the Attik auditorium and used primarily for rehearsals. In 1994 the newly renovated venue was reopened as the Aulin auditorium, in recognition of Tor Aulin. With capacity for 154 people, the auditorium is used mainly for seminars, lecturers and stage experimentation rather than regular concerts.

The area has dark blue walls in the foyer, with soft grey shades appearing in the auditorium itself. At the very top, along the ceiling, there are windows which allow the light to stream in over the oak stalls. Smart technology enables the gallery, with its blue seats, to be retracted into the rear wall, allowing a range of configurations in the auditorium.

Taking pride of place at the front is a bust of Tor Aulin, one of the founders of the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra, by Carl Eldh. Tor Aulin was a versatile musical figure and highly prominent in the Swedish musical scene both as a composer, conductor and violinist.

On 21 October 1902 he conducted the very first concert performed by the Stockholm Concert Society, which later became the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra. Together with his composer colleague Wilhelm Stenhammar and the director John May, Tor Aulin decided to start up an orchestra in Sweden’s capital. In the early 1900s there was only one professional orchestra in Stockholm: the Royal Court Orchestra at the Royal Swedish Opera.

Tonight little Puffles and Honey are in the Main Hall for a concert with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra with conductor Dima Slobodeniouk.

This year, Finland is celebrating 100 years as an independent nation and is marking the occasion with massive amounts of music. Naturally, Jean Sibelius is one of the most prominent figures and the Lahti Symphony Orchestra has received numerous awards for its Sibelius interpretations. Tonight they are performing the great Finnish composer’s most beloved work: Symphony No. 5.

Jean Sibelius

The first piece is music from contemporary Finland: in the orchestral work Hava, Lotta Wennäkoski (b.1970) aims to “explore how music can illustrate a subject the way a novel does, with contrasting light and its own language.” Wennäkoski is among the most acclaimed composers of the younger Finnish generation, and Hava (2007) is an exquisite example of her capacity to make music emerge from a single gesture.

Lotta Wennäkoski, composer of Hava (2007)

Baiba Skride is currently one of the world’s most celebrated international violin stars. Tonight we experienced the Latvian violinist in a performance of Shostakovich’s colourful and technically challenging Violin Concerto No. 2 – a piece that Shostakovich composed for and dedicated to the charismatic violinist and countryman David Oistrakh.

Baiba Skride, Violin

Shostakovich’s 1967 Violin Concerto no. 2 in C sharp minor is a work more to be admired than loved. Although Shostakovich’s place in the Soviet political regime was relatively secure by then, the austerity of this concerto and other late works are perhaps reflections of the composer’s failing health. It is a triumph of motivic development; short phrases are repeated, combined, developed. Melodies tend to be short-lived and are rarely expansive. The solo violin is often incorporated into the overall orchestral texture, although there are several extended cadenzas that give the soloist a few moments in the spotlight. Especially in the second movement, the soloist plays in the lowest register of the violin, but with a feeling of desolation rather than warmth. Skride threw herself fearlessly into a work which chugs along, often in a seeming bureaucratic frenzy. Not until the third movement does all of the activity pay off, with a rondo of perpetual motion, showing Skride’s virtuosity to fuller extent and demonstrating the precision of Lahti Symphony Orchestra.

Baiba Skride plays the most famous Wilhemj Stradivarius, ‘Ex Baron Feilitzsch’ violin (1734), on loan to her from Gidon Kremer, which enhances her resonant sound.

Baiba Skride with Lahti Symphony Orchestra

If one work could be said to characterize Jean Sibelius’ mature style, it is the Fifth Symphony. The first movement grows organically, from nebulous beginnings and the majestic emergence of a theme of compelling grandeur, through music of scherzo-like momentum surging with life and growing ever more fleet, to a final, exhilarating rush of energy. It’s a stunning example of Sibelius’ ability to build a symphonic movement on the dynamic development of a single idea, in this case the first four notes of the horn theme that opens the work.

In the symphony’s breathless moto perpetuo finale, Sibelius introduces one of his most memorable ideas: a bell-like tolling of chords among the four horns that is said to have come to him after he watched a flock of swans pass overhead. This “swan theme”, which emerges from the giddy rush of the tremolo strings, is the soul of the movement, and it’s accompanied by a poignant, singing subject given out in octaves by the woodwinds and cellos.

Sibelius brings the finale to climax by means of a grand slow-down, the reverse of the method he used in the first movement. The last pages of the symphony offer a mighty apotheosis of the “swan theme”, capped by six isolated, powerful chords. The world that has been summoned out of the ether ends as a succession of huge, monolithic shouts of “Amen”.

Lahti Symphony Orchestra

Venice of the North

Many cities have been nicknamed the ‘Venice of the North,’ but alongside St Petersburg it is Stockholm that has the greatest claim to such a title. Though many travellers spend most of their time in the medieval centre, Stockholm actually comprises 14 islands of an archipelago, which makes it a perfect location for island hopping.

Stockholm has been named one of the best cities in the world in the 2017 Readers’ Choice Awards survey by Condé Nast Traveler. And with good reason.

The picturesque Swedish capital is located at the intersection of two bodies of water (Lake Mälar and Salt Bay). At its centre stands Gamla Stan (Old Town), a well-preserved vestige of 16th and 17th century life and the modern-day nucleus of Sweden’s largest city.

In 1650, the only daughter of King Gustav II Adolf of the Vasa dynasty was crowned Queen Christina of Sweden. As part of the scene set for the ceremony a triumphal arch modelled after the ancient Arch of Constantine in Rome was erected in the centre of Stockholm. Made of wood and canvas rather than marble, Queen Christina’s arch nonetheless connoted supremacy. How better to assert the new superpower’s might than through classicism?

Queen Christina, portrait by Sébastien Bourdon

The arch stood in sharp contrast to the capital’s medieval houses and church spires and to the antiquated royal castle, Three Crowns (Tre kronor). Thus it prominently showed the direction that Sweden’s architecture would take for the rest of the 17th century.

By the time of Christina’s coronation, Sweden had risen from her earlier humble position among nations to become one of Europe’s great military powers. King Gustav II Adolf and his field generals had laid the groundwork with their successful campaigns during the Thirty Years War (1618-48). In this seemingly endless and devastating war, Sweden, alongside various German princely houses, had fought against the papist Holy Roman Empire – that is to say against the Hapsburgs of Austria and their cousin on the throne of Spain, as well as several minor German states that also practiced Catholicism. Led by Cardinal Richelieu, France too sought to undermine the power of the Hapsburgs and did so in part by augmenting the forces of Protestant Sweden. For France, the result was a strengthened position in Europe. Sweden, meanwhile, increased her territory by conquering several provinces on the Baltic Sea (besides Finland which was already part of Sweden). Thus the Swedish empire reached its zenith around the middle of the 17th century, a rank it then held for more than fifty years. In Swedish history, this epoch is referred to as the Age of Greatness.

The bold expansionist stance that Sweden had taken demanded considerable changes in society. New government offices were to be created, the judicial administration modernised, and the military organisation made more effective. Achieving all these objectives required a great many loyal servants. Because Sweden’s high offices were accessibly only to nobility, noblemen were generously allotted land and riches as reward for their dedication to the state. When there were too few men of noble birth to fill the state offices, able commoners were chosen and elevated to nobility. Ennoblement and the distribution of fiefdoms owing allegiance to the Crown reached an all-time high during Queen Christina’s reign.

Architecture provided a visual expression of the power of the nobility. Private palaces that were constructed throughout the country exhibited a level of significance never before seen in Sweden. The building boom culminated during the 1660s and 1670s, led primarily by Chancellor of the Realm (rikskansler) Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, one of the period’s luminaries. In 1674, De la Gardie was said to be building in some fifty different places in Sweden and its provinces, in addition to the many churches that he built or repaired.

Aspiring to compete with the luxury and refinement of Continental’s Europe upper classes, the Swedish nobility and the state itself drew inspiration and professional help from abroad. Although Swedish architecture already relied on imported expertise – canal and fortification engineers from the Netherlands, for example, and German sculptors and master builders – design in Sweden was to a great extent guided by utilitarian rather than aesthetic considerations. This pragmatism was not strict or universal, however, and especially in Stockholm some houses were erected with attention to ornamental details. North German and Dutch influences contributed to a Swedish synthesis of late-Gothic and Mannerist Renaissance styles that resulted in houses built with brick-red exteriors adorned with rich decorative window quoins and sandstone rustication, and topped with steep roofs and high gables.

The first architect in the modern sense of the word – that is, a professional with intellectual education and special training that places him on an equal social footing with his patrons – the Frenchman Simon de la Vallée raised the standard of Swedish architecture from the time of his arrival in 1637. Simon de la Vallée’s most important commission was a new meeting place for noblemen, the House of Nobility (Riddarhuset) in Stockholm. The architect based his original proposals on French palace architecture, but as the project progressed under later architects, its style came close to contemporary Dutch classicism. With its distinct classical elements and an original roof design, however, the House of Nobility exerted a significant influence on Swedish architecture.

House of Nobility

During the intensive building period that followed, Jean de la Vallée, son of Simon, and Nicodemus Tessin the Elder became prominent as Sweden’s two leading architects. Both had been trained in France and Italy, and both knew theory and the classical motifs as well as trends taking shape in the cultural centres of Continental Europe. As a result of their work for the monarchy and the nobility, both rose to great heights in Swedish society. Through them, international architecture was seriously introduced in Sweden.

Dowager Queen Hedwig Eleanora ca 1655
painting by David von Krafft

In 1662, for Dowager Queen Hedvig Eleonora, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder designed the Drottningholm Palace, the most grandiose Swedish composition ever created. Erected just outside Stockholm besides Lake Malaren, the splendid baroque palace was a manifestation of Sweden’s newly attained position of power. At the same time, it also symbolised the new dynasty that claimed the throne with the coronation in 1654 of Queen’s Christina cousin, King Karl X Gustav, by whose name the new Palatine royal line became known as the Karolinian. Drottningholm represented something truly new in Sweden: a precise, symmetrically organised building following the classical vocabulary and set amid an elaborate, formal, baroque garden parterre and park. The pattern realised at Drottningholm served as a prototype for the country palaces and manor houses later erected for Swedish aristocracy.

Drottningholm Palace

Elsewhere, beneath the anomalous and striking exterior of a copper-clad cupola atop the University of Uppsala’s Gustavianum, a superb anatomy theatre (1662-3) offers an example of the Swedish fascination with classical antiquity. Its architect, the versatile scientist Olof Rudbeck the Elder, shaped the auditorium interior as an octagonal amphitheatre with steps radiating upward from the stage supporting the dissection table. A series of pilasters adorning the rows of seats and representing the classical orders of architecture attest to Rudbeck’s affinity with the architecture of antiquity.

University of Uppsala’s Gustavianum

The strong attraction of both ancient and contemporary Rome for the young Swedish superpower is evident not only in the allusions in the art and architecture of the period but also in the growing numbers of travellers to the Eternal City. While it became almost obligatory for an artist or architect with ambitions to visit Rome; noblemen as well, thirsting for cultivation and refinement, made their way there. (After abdicating the throne in 1654, Queen Christina too set out for Rome, propelled by both her admiration for Continental European culture and her Catholicism.) And there was another culture the Swedes wished to adopt: the French, especially as it flowered during the glorious reign of the Sun King, Louis XIV. In the late 17th century, Versailles became the leading model in interior furnishings, gardens, theatre and ceremonial life.

The Swedes did their best to copy all things French, though they were also eager to show that they stood apart. In emulation of the French use of the Sun as a symbol for King Louis XIV, the Swedes designated the Polar Star as a symbol of their monarchy; it was usually accompanied by a proud motto, Septentrioni Ortum quod Merito nescit Occasum, meaning that, as the Polar Star never sets, so the Swedish empire guaranteed world harmony and order.

The same national self-assertion was a force driving the building activity during the Age of Greatness. This was displayed especially clearly in Erik Dahlbergh’s Suecia antiqua et hodierna (Sweden in Antiquity and Today), an impressive collection of engravings that presented Sweden’s newly erected palaces and manor houses to the rest of Europe and attested to the Nordic nation’s greatness and honour. Today the book, compiled in 1715, still provides a rich source of knowledge about 17th century Swedish architecture. To be sure of capturing the precision and elegance of architects’ original concepts, Dahlbergh sometimes followed the initial drawings instead of depicting what was actually built. In some cases, therefore, Dahlbergh’s renderings give a somewhat loftier impression that do the buildings themselves.

In 1672, Karl XI, then just seventeen years old, claimed the throne after the country had been controlled for twelve years by a regency led by Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, Karl’s uncle by marriage. The young king became engaged to a Danish princess, but this did not dissuade Denmark from declaring war on Sweden, which successfully defended her domination of the Baltic during the Scanian War (1675-79). Not three decades after the end of the Thirty Years War, the new hostilities plunged Sweden into acute financial crisis. One result was a call from an inquiry into the administration of the previous regency. Another was a demand for a reduktion (Reduction), meaning a return to the Crown’s control of all the lands recently granted to the expanded nobility. Although the estates of the old nobility were relatively unaffected, many newly rich clans that had attained noble status only in exchange for pledges of loyalty to the Crown now faced financial ruin. Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie was probably the person most affected: In a single sweep, he lost nearly all his properties. Though the land-owning nobility managed to save many of their belonging, their power was diminished, and a new privileged class – man with skills and competence but no high titles – took their place.

The Reduction had been supported by the clergy, the burghers and the peasants, that is, the three lower of the four Estates that constituted the Parliament. Since the days of Gustav II Adolf, the king, through holding a strong position, had formally reigned with the advice of a Council and the Parliament – the latter being especially influential on decisions concerning war, taxes and conscription. Now, however, parliamentary support gave absolute power to the king and led during the 1680s to the foundation of a royal autocracy.

With the royal autocracy in power, the architectural initiative shifted to the state. Much of Sweden’s labour force now became engaged in national defence. Under the leadership of Erik Dahlbergh, Swedish fortifications underwent their own great age, and activities in fortress building along the country’s borders intensified. Large sums of money went toward the main fortified cities such as Goteborg and Karlskrona, with the latter founded as a new base for the Royal Navy in 1680. Karlskrona was built on an ideal baroque city plan, with a grand boulevard and streets radiating from an open public square. Meanwhile, a nationwide military allotment system (indelningsverket) instituted by Karl XI enabled the creation of an army of professional soldiers and the construction of housing for them. Proper houses were built for officers; for lower-ranking soldiers, crofts were provided, all on the economic base created by the Reduction. Moreover, in peacetime, Swedish agriculture had the benefit of soldiers’ working as farmers.

Karl XI also harboured a strong interest in religion and declared himself head of the Swedish Protestant church. During his reign, which lasted until 1697, baroque church building reached its pinnacle. While the king’s involvement with the church was rooted in his own deep piety, it also had another goal: every citizen’s regular participation in church services. From the pulpit, one could easily disseminate not only religious messages but also political propaganda. Church interiors that were open and had good sight lines as well as good acoustics offered the advantage that the minister could be seen and heard by all. The aristocracy’s main contribution to ecclesiastical architecture was mostly limited to mausoleums erected at old country churches.

Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, son of Tessin the Elder, took charge of the treat majority of the royal autocracy’s artistic undertakings. His great competence and political loyalty were qualities that the Crown needed and could appreciate. In exchange for high titles and honours, the architect glorified the monarchy through all aspects of architecture and elevated ceremonial court life to a level comparable to that of the leading nations of Continental Europe. Though Tessin ranks among the most important baroque architects in Europe, he was also a pragmatic ideologue and politician. His most prestigious work, the Royal Palace in Stockholm, became the most prominent symbol of the Swedish empire.

Stockholm Royal Palace

In 1697, the same year that the old Tree Crowns was destroyed by fire and work began on a new royal palace, Karl XI died. The throne was claimed by his son, who, as Karl XII, became the third and last king of the Palatine dynasty. Three years later, an alliance of Denmark, Poland and Russia attacked Sweden, and the young king left Stockholm at the head of his army. This was the beginning of the Great Nordic War (1700-21).

During the first few years at war, Sweden received regular victory messages from the front on the far shore of the Baltic Sea, but soon her luck changed. At the battle of Poltava in 1709, the entire Swedish army was captured by Czar Peter the Great and herded to Russia. Karl XII escaped to Turkey, where he remained isolated for five years. In Stockholm, construction on the Royal Palace halted, and the country stood on the verge of economic ruin.

After Karl XII’s return to Sweden, the country’s last resources were mobilized in an attempt to invade Norway. At the siege of the Fredriksten Fortification on November 30, 1718, the king was shot through the head and killed. Whether the shot was fired by an enemy or came from one of his own men remains a question. His death brought to an abrupt end both the Crown’s absolute rule and the Age of Greatness.

Freed from the grip of royal autocracy, Sweden started life afresh, with a new constitution, social structure and spirit. “Here everyone is behaving like flies that have survived the winter and come to life again” is how one citizen described the political mood in Stockholm in 1718, shortly after the king’s death.

In the new Sweden that was taking shape, power was divided between the Council (i.e. the government) and the Parliament. Karl XII’s younger sister Ulrika Eleonora was elected queen but only after renouncing all claims to absolute power and she quickly relinquished the throne to her husband, Fredrik I of Hesse. Fredrik, in turn, settled for a limited role in politics as chairman of the Council. In time, a parliamentary system similar to that of Great Britain was developed; it was characterized by frictions between the two parties, the Hats (hattarna) and the Caps (mossorna).

The Hats, led by military officers, public officials and large company holders, allied themselves with France and against Russia and governed the country for thirty years. Active economic policies were at the top of the Hats’ agenda. The cautious and realistic Caps, representing the lower ranks of the bourgeoisie, the land-owning nobility, the clergy and the peasants, took over in 1765. Through foreign policy, the Caps were more closely allied with England, Denmark and Russia. The political opposition turned what Swedish history refers to as the Age of Liberty into a disorderly epoch, but one that laid the foundations for a more peaceful Sweden.

Though the wars and hardships of the Karolinian period had drastically depleted both the country’s economy and its population, recovery occurred quickly. Several years of abundant harvests and the swift development of many newly established manufacturers stimulated the Swedish economy, largely because of the Hat party’s politics. Most of the measures undertaken benefited Swedish society. In 1735, the Royal Drawing Academy was founded, laying the foundation for the later Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Four years later came the establishment of the Royal Academy of Science, founded with an explicit objective of furthering the nation’s interests. Within fourteen years, Sweden also had its Royal Academy of Arts and Letters.

Meanwhile, in 1739, the Parliament had created the Department of Manufacturing to promote domestic production, especially of decorative materials such as silk and faience. From the standpoint of the national economy, these enterprises were of relatively little significance, but for artistic and cultural life, the influence of the new department was great.

In terms either of corporate profits or the penetrating effect that a single company had on the times, no firm compared to the Swedish East India Company, which had been established in 1731 with headquarters in Goteborg. Under the firm’s auspices, Chinese goods poured into Sweden throughout the century, generating immense profits for the company’s owners and promoting a lively interest in East Asia that spread deep into the Swedish countryside.

Sweden’s clock had turned from twelve to one: Karl XII fell, and Fredrik I rose. A new period began with renewed spirit and promising potential. To be sure, peace in Sweden always faced challenges; now the main threat came from Russia. Strengthening the defence of the country’s eastern parts therefore became an important task for the Age of Liberty’s leading politicians. On a rocky island off the Finnish coast at Helsinki, a great fortress, Sveaborg, was constructed. The builders of Sveaborg aspired to make it impregnable, and the fortress became Sweden’s biggest building project of that period.

Some of Sweden’s greatest contributions to the world at large were products of the Age of Liberty, mostly notably in the fields of science, letters and culture. Age of Liberty coincided with the Age of Enlightenment, which had its origins in England and flowered in France. The broad swing in Continental Europe away from superstition, prejudice and unquestioning acceptance of authority and toward reason, logic and learning occurred in Sweden as well, although it affected only a minority of the people. France’s influence on Sweden grew stronger than ever before, at least at the court and among aristocrats and intellectuals, who took a lively interest in the writings of Voltaire and Rousseau. Members of the Swedish middle classes, meanwhile, were particularly attracted to England’s more utilitarian and bourgeois outlook. Swedish academicians of the time attained a stature comparable to that of the great thinkers and investigators abroad, most especially in the natural sciences. The Age of Liberty produced such eminent Swedish scientists as Anders Celsius (astronomer and physicist), Emanuel Swedenbourg (philosopher, theologian and natural scientist) and Carl Linnaeus (botanist) – all fathers of modern science.

Tranquillity, economic progress and widespread optimism led to a renewed interest in building. The development of discernible new stylistic ideals took time, though. The late baroque style still dominated the architecture of manor houses as well as provincial churches, though a new tone different from the earlier one gradually emerged. As a result of the newly invigorated ambition to build, the Parliament voted in 1727 to resume work on the Royal Palace after a standstill of nearly two decades. This action, however, encountered an unforseen complication. Completion of the palace required a massive work force, and the lack of qualified craftsmen was obvious. Count Carl Gustav Tessin, the son of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his father’s successor as superintendent of buildings, and court architect Carl Hårleman, who took the greater role in the completion of the palace, decided to recruit the needed manpower in France; it was there that Hårleman had become familiar with the new Rococo style. Soon, French artisans and craftsmen in the workshops around the palace were ably rendering the Swedish palace’s rococo carvings and paintings from Carl Hårleman’s drawings.

Through his architecture and furnishings based on French prototypes, Carl Hårleman created an ideal, simple and restrained style that set the tone for most of 18th century Swedish architecture. This is especially beautifully expressed in his manor houses, which certainly contributed to shaping what today is considered the Swedish style.

Sätuna Manor by Carl Hårleman (near Uppsala)

As the marriage of Fredrik I and Ulrika Eleonora produced no children, the Parliament was compelled to seek a suitable heir to the throne elsewhere. After pressure from Russia, it was decided in 1743 that Adolf Fredrik, a scion of the north German ducal dynasty of Holstein-Gottorp, would be the new Swedish heir. Not only was Adolf Fredrik a grandson of Karl XII’s elder sister, but also and more important, be was a relative of the Russian empress, Elizabeth. As Russia had just defeated Sweden in battle (1741-43), the victor got its way: access to the Swedish throne. In the following year, the crown prince married Lovisa Ulrika, sister of Frederick the Great of Prussia. The couple produced four lively children, all of whom reached adulthood: Gustav (the third of that name), Karl (the thirteenth), Fredrik Adolf and Sophia Albertina. In 1751, Adolf Fredrik was crowned king of Sweden.

Lovisa Ulrika and Adolf Fredrik

Raised in autocratic Prussia, Lovisa Ulrika had more trouble finding her way in the Swedish political system than did her quiet, good-natured husband, and she made several attempts to strengthen the power of the monarchy. She was discovered as the instigator of a coup d’état, albeit unsuccessful, in 1756. The royalist aristocrats involved with the conspirators were executed, and the royal couple threatened with dethronement and exile. After some embarrassing reprimands, however, the alleged insurgents were pardoned.

The Prussian princess made her greatest contributions to Sweden in art and culture. She brought about the refurbishment and enlargement of Drottningholm Palace as a modern summer residence for the royal family, and she participated in developing the exotic Chinese Pavilion nearby. She pursued such cultural interests as book collecting, theatre and the study of natural history, which resulted in a series of milieus that are considered the most exquisite of 18th century Swedish creations. It was she who founded the Royal Academy of Arts and Letters, where annual gatherings were held on her birthday. Virtually without political power and access to government funds, the royal family had to make do with the palaces that already existed. Nevertheless, the royals were in a class of their own when it came to constructing buildings and commissioning art.

During the 18th century, another group of patrons arose from the internationally oriented bourgeoisie. Together with office holders from the lower nobility, these wealthy merchants and industrial leaders assumed the initiative in most areas. Carl Gustav Tessin – a diplomat and art collector, and by now a leading Hat politician and Sweden’s Court Marshal – belonged to this group and counted as one of the most illustrious personalities of the 18th century. Carl Gustav Tessin’s country house, Åkerö, housed an exceptional collection of French art and in all respects exhibited the ultimate in good taste and refinement. His collections today constitute an important basis for the National Museum of Fine Arts in Stockholm.

For Sweden to rise from the poor condition in which it began the Age of Liberty to the commercial, scientific and cultural level of many other European countries took just fifty years. Throughout these decades, Sweden’s population continued to grow steadily, reaching more than two million in 1770. The population of Swedish-held Finland, meanwhile, reached 600,000. Ten percent of the population in both countries lived in the cities, Stockholm being the largest, with 75,000 followed by Göteborg and Karlskrona, with about 10,000 each. The remaining towns were small and rural. The nobility made up about five percent of the population. Nine out of ten Swedes lived in the country and under meagre conditions.

Social change characterised the final years of the Age of Liberty. But the initial, ebullient optimism had cooled down. Disputes between the political parties increased, while divisive antagonisms between the aristocracy and the lower classes deepened. Open criticism of aristocratic privileges was on the rise, as were corruption and misuse of power. It was time to go in a new direction – but which way?

Crown Prince Gustav was attending the theatre in Paris one evening in 1771 when the received the news of the death of his father, Kind Adolf Fredrik. Upon his return to Sweden, the prince was crowned King Gustav III, Sweden’s second ruler from the Hostein-Gottorp dynasty. In the following year, on August 19, King Gustav took advantage of the current political instability and carried out a bloodless coup d’état. In one swift moment, Sweden’s political system changed dramatically. A new constitution was established, which essentially reintroduced the principles of sovereignty and the parliamentary government was replaced by Gustav III’s own royal autocracy.

During the next twenty years, nearly everything that occurred, was said, or was thought in Sweden was influenced by Gustav III. Gifted, egocentric and frenetically busy, he controlled both domestic and foreign politics while enthusiastically leading the country’s cultural life as well. Some people viewed him as the country’s saviour, others as an evil tyrant.

Gustav III

The first decade of his regime was politically calm, and the French-oriented Gustav III stood out as one of Europe’s most enlightened monarchs. But the 1870s saw growing tensions between the king and his opposition. Paradoxically, it was within the nobility that power struggles ruffled the most feathers. In an attempt to regain popularity and break the opposition’s power, Gustav III attacked Russia, the official rationale being to regain some of the Finland’s Baltic provinces that had been lost earlier. The Russian War (1788-90) ended in a status quo ante bellum, but it led to a group of noblemen’s openly opposing the king. Gustav III summoned the Parliament, and in 1789 he pushed through a new form of government, reinstating an absolute monarchy. Although the French Revolution, which occurred in the same year, won little support in Sweden, the king nevertheless decided to tem any attempt at insurgency by introducing censorship, curtailing the nobility’s privileges and giving the lower estates more rights.

Though opinions of Gustav III’s political contributions vary, his reign was indisputably a period of unprecedented artistic flowering in Sweden. Gustav III consciously used art and culture for patriotic purposes. Inspired by the cultural institutions in France, the founded the Royal Academy of Music, reinvigorated the newly established Royal Academy of Arts and Letters, and founded the Swedish Academy, the eighteen members of which were bidden not only to groom the language but also to honour the regent. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts experienced a golden age during his reign, and both opera and theatre won the king’s favour and were awarded a national stage. No other Swedish monarch had had so great an interest in theatre, and no other had promoted it as he did. Gustav III is still known today as the Theatre King.

As absolute monarch, Gustav III was able to initiate various building projects and to fulfil his elaborate architectural dreams without interference from the Parliament. Despite this, he left behind no royal palace of monumental scale. Haga, the king’s pavilion outside Stockholm, which occupied his interest during his last decade, still stands out as a gem in Swedish architecture; however, the enormous palace intended for the site never advanced beyond a foundation.

Gustav III left so great a mark on both art and architecture that even today Swedes refer to the Gustavian style. This style, which replaced the rococo, is often thought of as the Swedish national counterpart to the French fine and decorative arts of King Louis XVI. The lines and shapes that characterise the Gustavian style had in fact been developed several years before Gustav III’s coronation, but it was the monarch – greatly influenced by French art and culture – whose patronage contributed to the style’s popularity and dissemination. Elegant and restrained, the Gustavian style is still widely regarded as the ultimate expression of Swedish good taste.

Gustav III’s journey to Italy in 1783-84 is usually seen as the preface to the Late Gustavian style. As the king’s tastes changed, architecture and interior decoration in Sweden developed toward a more stern and international form of neoclassicism. The Late Gustavian style, on which the king himself exerted an especially strong personal influence, continued well after Gustav III was gone.

As it had in the mid 17th century, 18th century Rome attracted more Swedes than the king. For architects, the journey to Rome was nearly obligatory. Many continued south to Naples and to the excavations of the ancient cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii, or still further, to Paestum and Sicily, where they came into direct contact with Greek originals. The results reached Sweden quickly. Swedish churches and other public buildings were soon adorned with heavy Doric columns and pilasters. Palaces and manor houses, meanwhile, were being furnished in the style seen in Roman wall paintings. Circular temples, figures of ancient deities, and obelisks emulating those that Roman conquerors had hauled home from Egypt appeared in Swedish parks and gardens. The sight amazed foreign visitors. During a visit to the Gunnebo estate outside Goteborg, the English feminist writer and traveller Mary Wollstonecraft could not contain her astonishment over the Swedes’ need to install, in this untouched Nordic landscape, not only columns but also “Venuses and Apollos condemned to lie in snow three parts of the year”.

In keeping with his enthusiasm for Italy, Gustav III acquired a collection of ancient sculptures. The most admired pieces were a figure of the sleeping Endymion and a sculptural group representing Apollo and the Muses. Awaiting the completion of the new residence at Haga, the sculptures were installed in a gallery in the Royal Palace. Years later, the king’s collection was moved to a pair of galleries in the lower northeast wing, where it constituted Sweden’s first public museum, dedicated to Gustav III.

Within the noble circle as well as among more radically minded citizens, the king’s autocratic behaviour eventually provoked a drastic reaction that led to a decisive step: the murder of the king. The last act of Gustav III’s life played out in a theatre – or rather, in the opera house in Stockholm that the king himself had commissioned. At a masquerade ball on March 16, 1792, the king was mortally wounded by a pistol shot in the back, and he died two weeks later. The murderer, Captain Johan Anckarström, was publicly executed in front of the House of Nobility; no other suspects were apprehended. The deceased king’s brother, Prince Karl, found it in his best interest to close the case quickly.

The assassination of Gustav III failed, however, in the sense that the absolute monarchy continued with his son, Gustav IV Adolf. Under the new king, Sweden again became unstable, with politics deeply affected by the Napoleonic wars. Gustav IV Adolf’s disgust both for the revolt and for Napoleon contributed to his decision, in 1805, to enter into a war with Russia and England against France. The French easily captured the Swedish province of Pomerania on the far side of the Baltic Sea, and, when Napoleon and the Czar agreed to peace in 1807, Sweden was ordered to break off her alliance with England. When Swedes refused to comply, Russian troops invaded Finland. The war of 1808-9 ended in complete defeat for Sweden. Finland was once and for all lost to her and Stockholm waited for the enemy’s approach.

In light of this situation, a group of civil and military officers deemed Gustav IV Adolf incapable of ruling, and in March 1809, before the war was over, the king was arrested and deposed. A parliamentary session quickly formed a new constitution, which, to a great extent, is still in effect today. While the deposed monarch was driven into exile, the late Gustav III’s brother was nominated to succeed Gustav IV Adolf as King Karl XIII. The Gustavian absolute monarchy was abolished. Sweden was now a constitutional monarchy.

In 1810, the French Field Marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was elected heir to the Swedish throne. He was met with great enthusiasm when he arrived in his new country, where he was adopted by the childless King Karl XIII. Within months of Bernadotte’s arrival, Désirée, the wife of Sweden’s French crown prince, followed. The lady radiated a glamorous aura owing in part to her prior engagement to Napoleon. But Désirée had a difficult time with the Swedish climate, and almost immediately she went home to France. Not until 1823, for the marriage of her son Oscar, did she return to Sweden.

Though Bernadotte was not crowned until 1818, under the name Karl XIV Johan, he had in reality been acting as regent for eight years. He immediately took control of politics, skilfully leading a badly damaged Sweden through the difficult aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. From a cautious distance, Sweden participated in the great coalition of countries that, in 1813, finally triumphed over Napoleon’s troops in Leipzig.

Karl XIV Johan
portrait by François Gérard

Many Swedes had hoped to reclaim Finland, but Karl Johan had other plans. Instead of marching on Finland, he turned his troops against Denmark, which, in 1814, was forced to relinquish control of Norway to Sweden. Faced with the superiority of Sweden’s weapons, the reluctant Norwegians had no choice but to enter into a ninety year union with their neighbour. Thereafter, peace dominated the Scandinavian Peninsula.

The Karl Johan period, which continued until 1844, was a time that historians characterise with the military expression, “marching in place”. The opposition complained about the lack of actual change and about what they called the king’s “bedchamber regency” (Karl Johan made a habit of addressing advisors and government representatives in his bedchamber as he prepared to rise in the afternoon.) Despite this, there were a number of substantial advances in the social and economic spheres, as well as in the cultural, but they often took place in silence, and therefore went largely unnoticed.

The arts from the Karl Johan period have always stood in the shadow of the artistic achievements of the Gustavian age. Neoclassicism continued to colour academic art well into the 19th century, and the same applied to architecture. The country manor houses that were built reflected a taste for moderation, with their foremost traits being simplicity and good proportions, although they were not entirely without monumental elements. Columns continued to be the prevalent symbol of power and status. In the growing cities, classicism, well balanced and sombrely expressed, reached its full height during the first half of the century.

The harsh times called for utilitarian buildings such as hospitals, barracks, and schools. Most of these were erected in a severe, toned-down style. Function was the watchword. The period’s largest undertaking involved something as pragmatic as the Göta Canal (1810-32), which linked the country’s east and west coasts via waterways. The canal was an enormous project, led by military officers and carried out by soldiers. Construction of the Karlsborg military fortress in southwest Sweden was closely connected to the building of the Göta Canal and was intended to be the main fortress for Sweden’s troops. Such projects demonstrated that the military was in charge.

Bernadotte’s time as crown prince and regent coincided with the French Empire style, which in Sweden was named for him: the Karl Johan style. The two terms are almost interchangeable, though the Swedish version is usually lighter and somewhat simpler than its French counterpart. It is, in effect, a continuation of European neoclassicism, with inspirations still drawn from antiquity, mostly from the Roman Empire.

The style was applied primarily to interiors. Rooms were painted to imitate marble or cloaked in textiles to give the impression of a military tent. Furniture of dark mahogany, gilt ormolu bronzes, vibrant colours and shiny fabrics – everything that characterizes the style – is evident at Karl Johan’s summer palace in Stockholm. Called Rosendal, it is considered the most harmonious and best-preserved Empire environment in Sweden.

Rosendal Palace
Rosendal Palace Interior

Toward the end of the Karl Johan period, there was no longer any dominant ideal style in Sweden. Academic classicism in architecture went into eclipse. New technical and practical advantages allowed architects to experiment freely with shape and form, and to explore other sources of stylistic ideas. The derivative “neo” styles, such as neo-Gothic and neo-Renaissance, permeated Swedish architecture throughout much of 19th century.

Awareness of the national heritage that developed during the Karl Johan period found expression beyond architecture. Native Nordic gods and heroes took up the fight with imported classical Greek and Roman gods. As his predecessor acquired sculptures of Apollo and the nine muses, Karl Johan ordered colossal sculptures of the ancient Nordic Asa gods. He also had a frieze painted in one of the salons at Rosendal depicting the Scythian chieftain Oden, founder of the Asa line, coming to Sweden and saving the country. The allegorical connection between the king and the mythological figure was obvious. Karl Johan was most assertive that his life as king was unlike that of any other living being. As he said on his deathbed, Personne n’a fourni une carrière semblable à la mienne – No one has completed a path comparable to mine.

Stockholm Royal Palace

Stockholm Royal Palace – Northern Facade

Tessin the Younger (1654-1728) is best known today as the architect of the Royal Palace in Stockholm. The Royal Palace was just a fraction of Tessin the Younger’s large-scale plans for Stockholm. During the embattled years in the early 18th century, the king and architect had exchanged letters planning radical changes in the urban environment of the palace. The goal was to create a capital city worthy of the absolute monarchy. In reality, however, the plans were more of an escapist’s fantasy. This was probably understood by both the architect and the king, who was detained in Turkey after his disastrous defeat at Poltava in 1709. The full scope of the project to glorify Stockholm is known today only through a drawing by Tessin that has been preserved.

No architect in Sweden has ever attained the stature of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger whose multi-faceted career also won him great influence as a politician and courtier to the king. From his youth, his bright prospects distinguished him from his peers. His education began in Sweden, first under his father, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, then at Uppsala University. In 1673, when the young Tessin was just nineteen, he went to Rome to continue his studies. While he was there, former Queen Christina, having abdicated the throne and taken up residence in the Eternal City, took a lively interest in her gifted compatriot and helped to see that his stay in Rome was a productive one. Tessin was invited to study with the architect Carlo Fontana, through whom he made the acquaintance of the great Gianlorenzo Bernini.

During the six years in Rome and the following two in England and France, Tessin developed the style that would later determine his architecture. Though both Roman antiquity and the Renaissance were important to him, it was the baroque architecture of Bernini that Tessin admired most and that shaped his future work. In Tessin’s hands, the heavier Roman baroque of Bernini was complemented by the lighter, more decorated baroque classicism of Louis XIV’s France. The surroundings being created by Charles le Brun at Versailles and at the Louvre, and, in fact, the entire artistic devotion to glorifying the king of France, greatly impressed Tessin. He was drawn to the new principles of palace architecture that he encountered in France, especially to those developed and implemented by architect Louis Le Vau in his designs for Vaux-le-Vicomte (1658-1661) and to the landscape architecture of André Le Nôtre. Over the years, Tessin compiled a unique and extensive collection of French drawings and engravings, many of which are now preserved at the National Museum of Fine Arts in Stockholm.

Sweden had high expectations for Tessin. Even while still in Rome, he was appointed court architect. Upon his return to Sweden in 1681, he took over the position that his recently deceased father had held as city architect in Stockholm; along with that post, he inherited responsibility for completing Drottningholm Palace for the dowager queen, Hedvig Eleonora.

Throughout several hectic years, Tessin was inundated with projects. He designed palaces, churches, gardens and grounds, and he orchestrated royal festivities and ceremonies of all kinds. His career was further secured by the crown’s desire to centralise artistic administration. In 1697, when Tessin became superintendent of buildings, the goal was to create a position comparable to the French Surintendent des Bâtiments du Roi, even though, at first, the title – överintendent – was only a prestigious designation for “royal court architect”.

Model of the Tre Kronor Castle

The old castle, Three Crowns (Tre Kronor), which still functioned as a royal residence, was outdated and dilapidated. It was composed of a conglomerate of buildings from various periods skirting a central medieval tower. Both Jean de la Vallée and Nicodemus Tessin the Elder had been asked to devise a more modern frame around the historic sections of the castle, but none of their proposals were ever realised. Tessin the Younger, who disapproved of most older Swedish architecture, considered the former castle a disgrace to a superpower like Sweden. He desired to create a truly regal palace, based on classical ideals, that would measure up to the best in continental Europe.

Tessin’s plans were hindered, however, by the modest and frugal King Karl XI, who disapproved of costly new construction for himself. The king could, though, accept a larger renovation of the old royal chapel located in the Three Crowns’ north wing. Thus, after returning from a second trip to Paris and Rome (1687-88), Tessin began work on this refurbishment. Two years into the project, it took on a new dimension. After a minor fire in the north wing, Tessin was ordered to rebuild the wing entirely, adding two full stories. He persuaded the king to allow him to also modernise the façade. The work began in 1692, which became the official date of the current Royal Palace. Within a few years, the walls were raised, stuccoed and painted a light brick red, with the stone trim painted white.

Tessin’s new northern façade was depicted in a copper engraving after his drawing, by the French artist, Sébastien Leclerc; this image spread throughout Europe’s royal courts. It showed a three-story, horizontal building in a strict, Roman, Renaissance-Baroque style, with a large central portion, a recessed mezzanine floor, and a roof line concealed behind a balustrade. The older sections of the castle were cleverly hidden behind the new façade. Tessin’s point of departure for the design may have been a proposal that Bernini had presented several decades earlier for refurbishment of the Louvre.

What happened next is well documented. On May 7, 1697, a violent fire broke out in the castle. A few weeks earlier, King Karl XI had become gravely ill and died at just forty-two years of age; his body, lying in state, was among the first things to be saved from the flames. In only a few hours, the south, east and west sections were destroyed, and soon thereafter the tower of the Three Crowns collapsed. The heavy bronze bells broke through the wooden joists and landed with a thunderous crash in the wine cellar. Tessin was among the firefighters. Engulfed in billowing smoke, he tried to save the north wing but was forced to retreat. His newly built walls withstood the fire, but several of the interiors perished, including those of the newly consecrated royal chapel. The castle’s historical continuity, which until the fire had prevented any radical changes in its appearance, was destroyed.

This left just one way to proceed: rebuilding the entire castle. On the day after the fire, Dowager Queen Hedvig Eleonora and the guardian regency gave Tessin the task of preparing plans for a new palace. Six weeks later, the architect presented a general proposal that included a complete set of drawings for two of the planned three stories – an unparalleled presentation, even though the drawings for the façade and the cross-sections were still to come. The design alone won Tessin artistic free reign to plan what remained on the basis of his initial scheme. Construction began that very summer. The sheer size of the new palace greatly complicated the task at hand, and diverse activities – administrative as well as ceremonial – had to be carried out within the walls. In the beginning, Tessin improvised creative ways to solve perplexing problems, but, as time went on, he became more confident with his new responsibilities.

The principal layout comprised of a quadrangle enclosing a large, square inner courtyard; the most prominent feature was the architect’s addition of two pairs of low wings projecting to the east and the west. The wings imparted vigour to the building and provided opportunities for varied treatments within the general layout. The overall effect surprised even Tessin himself. In a series of detailed drawings prepared in 1704, Tessin had fully worked out the exterior schematics of the palace along with the monumental interiors, which he regarded as his finest work.

Model of Royal Palace – Western Facade facing forward
Stockholm Royal Palace – Eastern Facade

Tessin was a decided classicist and unafraid to apply solutions devised by other architects. He repeatedly made use of drawings and measurements from the study tours of his youth, to the Palazzo Farnese and Palazzo Chigi in Rome, and beyond the city, to the Villa Farnese in Caprarola and the Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati. Although he borrowed ideas from the Renaissance and baroque palaces within and outside Rome, his finished products were always completely his own and reflected his unique ability to combine broad ideas and specific details into a truly new and original whole.

He also understood how to take advantage of the environment of a site. The varied surroundings, with water on two sides and the adjacent city on the other two, inspired the architect to give each side of the palace its unique character.

Tessin placed the apartments of both the king and the queen behind the strictly Roman north façade. The rooms were situated on the upper two floors, laid out enfilade, with the state apartments facing the water and the private apartments toward the inner courtyard. They were reached by via two impressive stairways located in the east and west wings. A magnificent room on the third floor, called Karl XI’s gallery, linked the two suites. The inspiration for this clearly came from the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. The open view to the east toward the Saltsjö Sea inspired a graceful, even feminine, form for the palace’s eastern façade, behind which the queen would eventually reside. The two lower wings on this side of the palace were to house a theatre and a library, as well as two orangeries on the first floor. These indoor gardens faced a small topiary garden (Logården) out of doors, from which a staircase provided a path to the sea below.

On the opposite side of the palace, Tessin used a more severe and imposing vocabulary for the exterior of the king’s apartments. The western façade’s disciplined character fulfilled the outer courtyard’s purpose as a site for military drills and exercises. The motif of the first floor, with ribbed Tuscan-style columns, continued in the curved free-standing wings that framed the courtyard; these were originally open porticoes.

The southern façade, looking onto the slopping road, Slottsbacken, and the Old Town, presents the palace’s most grandiose aspect. Here, a central triumphal arch motif marks the entrance to a high-domed great stair hall and to the palace’s two ceremonial rooms, the Hall of State and the Royal Chapel. The elaborate design of the exterior, with colossal Corinthian columns, elaborately sculpted niches, and inscriptions paying tribute to King Karl XII, distracts attention from the southern exterior’s imperfect symmetry – a result of the need to accommodate the civic church, Storkyrkan.

Stockholm Royal Palace – Southern Facade
Hall of State – designed by Carl Hårleman. Completed in 1755.
Hall of State – Silver throne received by Queen Kristina
Queen Kristina received the silver throne as a gift from Magnus Gabriel De La Gardie on the occasion of her coronation in 1650. It was made by the goldsmith Abraham Drentwett in Augsburg.

In contrast to the exterior façade’s great variety, the inner courtyard makes a harmonious and uniform impression. The sheer size of the space is more like that of a public square than of a palace courtyard. The open arcades around the stairways located in the east and west wings (enclosed during the 1750s), together with the proposed equestrian statue of King Karl XI at the courtyard’s centre, are good indications that Tessin himself actually regarded the space more as a public square than a palace courtyard.

Tessin’s goal to create a palace that met a high international standard imposed heavy demands on his crew. The available pool of Swedish workers was inadequate to carry out Tessin’s plan, so – with the help of Sweden’s envoy in Paris, Daniel Cronström – the architect enlisted artisans and craftsmen from France, where they had proven their skills during service to King Louis XIV. Their arrival in Stockholm throughout the 1690s brought a new artistic coterie to the palace construction project. Among them was the sculptor Bernard Fouquet, who was entrusted with all the bronze statuary, such as the two lions on the Lion Ramp (Lejonbacken), four large groups depicting the feats of Hercules to be placed at the south entrance, and the royal equestrian statue that Tessin had planned for the inner courtyard. The lions were completed in 1704, but the other sculptures never progressed past the model stage. Indeed, only a few of the bronzes that the architect had planned were ever completed. During times of war, most of Sweden’s bronze ended up at the cannon foundry.

Many of the palace’s interiors were modelled after French prototypes. The largest artistic endeavours focused on the royal state apartments on the third floor of the north wing, where decoration had begun in 1694. After the fire, the French artists had in large part to begin again. The painter, Jacques Fouquet, son of sculptor Bernard Fouquet, executed a series of ceiling paintings that honoured the Swedish crown’s triumphs and virtues in full allegorical splendour. In Karl XI’s gallery and the adjoining cabinet, the theme celebrates his war against Denmark, while the king’s audience room and the state bedchamber were later dedicated to Karl XII’s military exploits. René Chauveau was responsible for decorative plasterwork, while Jacques de Meaux embellished the window reveals with delicate grotesques in the spirit of the French artist Jean Bérain the Elder. Tessin was well aware that, with these lavish decorations, he was going way beyond the familiar limits. The result, however, was far superior to any earlier artistic achievement in Sweden.

The Victoria Drawing Room – this interior was designed by architect Fredrik Wilhelm Scholander in the 1860s.
The Victoria Drawing Room – one of two tables with marble stucco tops made in Munich for King Oskar I and Queen Josefina in 1844.

Work on the palace continued at full speed until the Nordic War erupted, financially draining the Swedish economy. In 1700, Karl XII left Stockholm at the head of his army, and soon no further funds were available for palace refurbishment. By nine years later, the project had nearly came to a halt. For almost two decades, boards were left to cover the bare, half-finished walls.

The year 1727 is often cited as the starting point of the art and architecture of the Age of Liberty. It was during this year that the Swedish Parliament decided to resume work on the Royal Palace, which had been at a standstill for two decades. Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, by then elderly, died the very next year, in 1728, and never saw the project completed. A new generation of architects, artists and craftsmen finished his Royal Palace.

His son Carl Gustav Tessin, inherited the position of superintendent. One of the 18th century’s most illustrious personalities, Carl Gustav Tessin made major contributions to the palace and to Sweden’s artistic life in general, but he lacked both the training and the ambition to practice architecture. Thus, the leading architectural role went to Carl Hårleman, who assumed artistic responsibility for completion of the palace.

Nicodemus Tessin the Younger himself had hand-picked Carl Hårleman (1700-1753) for the job. The son of the keeper of the royal gardens and grounds, Hårleman possessed talents that had been noticed early on, and in 1721 Tessin arranged for Hårleman to travel to Paris for further studies. After six years abroad, including a study sojourn in Italy, Hårleman was ordered home to Stockholm, with the understanding that he would assist the ageing superintendent. Instead, despite his lack of practical experience as an architect, he soon found himself bearing both the title of court architect and full responsibility for the royal building project. Even after he became superintendent in 1741, which gave him licence to practice very much as he liked, Hårleman nonetheless adhered closely to Tessin the Younger’s vision for the palace.

By the early 1730s, construction of the Royal Palace had progressed to the point of being ready for planning of the interior decoration to begin, especially for the interiors of the royal apartments on the second floor of the north wing. As had been the case with artisans and craftsmen back in the 1690s, the need for skilled workers for the interior again became acute. So in 1731 Hårleman was sent to Paris to recruit qualified artisans, as well as to bring back drawings and patterns of designs for furniture and textiles. This journey was of vital importance to the entire artistic development of Sweden. Hårleman was able to absorb everything he encountered in the French capital. In letters, he confessed that there were many things that he had overlooked during his earlier travels, adding how the Paris he had encountered just four years before had in the interim changed dramatically.

The Meleager Salon – official gifts and orders of chivalry are exchanged in this room during state visits.
The tapestries were part of Ulrika Eleonora’s dowry in 1680

The Rococo was on the verge of a breakthrough in Paris. During his eight-month stay, Hårleman had plenty of time to study the latest developments in architecture and interior design. He successfully fulfilled his duties to the crown by returning to Sweden with vast knowledge, a portfolio of drawings reflecting the current styles in Paris and a list of new recruits. During the summer of 1732, the first group – nine French artisans and ornament sculptors – arrived in Stockholm. Other artists followed, including two Italian painters whom Carl Gustav Tessin had met in Venice. With the influence of these Continental artists and artisans, Sweden quickly became up-to-date with the most current styles. This not only affected the palace project but also influence the overall artistic development of Sweden.

In the interiors of the palace, Hårleman was free to make contributions reflecting the latest trends. One of the first for which he was responsible was Crown Prince Adolf Fredrik’s dining room, also called the Hall of Pillars. Work on this room, in the northwest corner of the palace, began in 1733. Here, Hårleman’s regard for classical traditions is evident. Behind twelve Ionic columns, the walls are divided by Ionic pilasters. Providing a strong contrast to the columns’ sombre effect, large paintings of magnificent cornucopias of fruit by Antoine-Baptiste Monnoyer were set into the wall panels, and matching overdoors carried similar motifs. The system of joists takes the shape of a coved moulding with gilt decoration, and the ceiling was (and still is) decorated with a light, playful painting representing the Four Seasons executed by one of the artists brought from Italy, Alessandro Feretti.

As with the Hall of Pillars, many of Hårleman’s interiors at the Royal Palace have undergone changes and modernisation since the architect’s original plan was realised. Moreover, most of Hårleman’s drawings have been lost. In fact, the only room in the royal apartments for which an original Hårleman plan exists today is the Lower Gallery (today called the Bernadotte Gallery) located on the second floor of the north wing. Made in the second half of the 1730s, the drawing depicts a windowed wall. The wall panel’s large, sculpted framework is held together by pilasters with rich rococo ornament, while the chimneypiece over the fireplace is embellished with a framed mirror decorated with dragons – one of Hårleman’s signature images.

The Bernadotte Gallery – portrait collection of members of the Bernadotte dynasty

Similarities between this room and the Galerie Dorée in the Hôtel de Toulouse in Paris, designed by French architect and sculptor François-Antoine Vassé, have often been noted. Vassé, Hårleman’s teacher at Paris’ Royal Academy of Architecture, and the architects Robert de Cotte and Nicolas Pineau, were the Swedish architect’s main sources of inspiration for his work at the Royal Palace. Hårleman’s style has always remained independent, however. Within the Rococo traditions, his work was considerably more restrained than that of his French colleagues. His designs were simpler and toned down, and he never allowed decoration to overwhelm a room’s architectural integrity.

Among the Royal Palace’s best preserved rococo interiors are the two cabinets flanking the Lower Gallery. Tessin the Younger had planned the cabinets to be rectangular, but, in 1737, Hårleman transformed them into octagons with recessed, arched niches. The Frenchman Jean Bourguignon led the carving work and executed the heavily sculpted and gilt doors that were, according to the artist himself, “d’un goût très nouveau” – of a very new taste. Around 1754 two other Frenchmen, François Menard and Jean Gaspar Caillon, carved the exquisite relief ornamentation that Hårleman designed for six of the room’s eight niches; within the reliefs were various rococo motifs such as mosaic patterns, floral garlands, mussels shells, rocailles and trofée groups. These carvings, gilt and faux-marble painted in diverse tones, are considered one of the finest examples of Swedish Rococo.

A third trip to Paris, in 1744-45, broadened Hårleman’s source of ideas. Among his new guiding spirits were Ange-Jacques Gabriel, under whom Hårleman had worked during an earlier stay in Paris. At Versailles, Gabriel and his co-workers had created rocailles with figurative scenes similar to those that eventually appeared in Crown Prince Gustav III’s apartment in the Royal Palace. For the designs of this room, Hårleman was assisted by the Frenchman Adrien Masreliez, who in 1748 was put in charge of the ornament workshop at the Royal Palace. Gustav III’s apartment exhibits a mature but disciplined Rococo. The pilasters and dado, carved in shallow relief, blend into the walls’ oak panelling (which was originally painted), while the individual decorative ornaments, such as cherubs playing, stand out distinctly.

Hårleman died at the height of his career, before completing the crown prince’s apartment. Thus, he did not witness the return of the royal family’s return to the palace in 1754. (In the interim, the Wrangel palace in Stockholm had served as the royal residence.) For a long time, the Rococo in Sweden was limited to Hårleman’s interiors in the Royal Palace, executed with the assistance of the French master artisans. Rococo interiors of equal distinction were, by and large, never again created in Sweden.

During the 1760s, Jean Eric Rehn was also a major artistic force at the Royal Palace, where he became responsible for the first room to be executed in pure Gustovian style: King Gustav III’s state bedchamber, furnished in 1772-78. The king’s and queen’s bechambers in the Royal Palace were Jean Eric Rehn’s most prestigious commission.

Lovisa Ulrika’s Audience Chamber
Most fixtures in the room were designed by Jean Eric Rehn
Marble bust of Lovisa Ulrika by Johan Tobias Sergel.
The throne was one of two made for the coronation of Adolf Fredrik and Lovisa Ulrika in Stockholm Cathedral in 1751

Greatly impressed by what he had encountered in Paris and Versailles, the newly crowned king immediately decided to transform Karl XI’s former audience room into a worthy bedchamber for himself. Here, the king could assert his power with a theatrical zeal comparable to that of his ideal model, King Louis XVI of France, by holding lever du Roi (the king’s arising) ceremonies; more than a few of his foreign guests found this outdated practice strange. To realize the room’s maximum grandeur, he retained portions of Tessin’s original decor, such as the magnificent baroque ceiling, cornices, window reveals and doors. The connection with the country’s honoured past can be seen as a direct parallel to early French neoclassicism, in which prototypes were readily taken from l’ancien régime (ie, that of Louis XIV). Since the basis for the new decoration of the bedchamber was preserved architectural elements, Rehn’s goal was to connect the various components aesthetically, giving the room a new unity. He moved the inner wall back to make space for a bed alcove, which he separated from the rest of the room with a pair of columns and a balustrade. The walls he treated with a heavy, imposing neoclassicism in the style of Louis XVI, with Ionic pilasters in white and gold. Laurel wreaths and swags, as well as vertical rectangular fields filled with a mosaic pattern, adorned the panelling.

Following his father’s path, Jean Baptiste Masreliez, son of Adrien Masreliez, was the primary ornament sculptor; the precocious young artist had just returned from studies in Paris with sufficient knowledge to carry out the architect’s intentions. Jean Baptiste Masreliez was personally responsible for two heavily sculpted and gilt console tables made for the room.

In 1775, Rehn began work on the state bedchamber of King Gustav’s consort, Queen Sophia Magdalena. The room was situated as a counterpart to the king’s bedchamber, on the opposite side of Karl XI’s gallery, and it followed basically the same plan as the king’s, with the exception of the alcove, which in the queen’s room was flanked by four columns and a balustrade. Here, the architect once again took advantage of existing architectural elements such as the ceiling, cornices and doors. The treatment of the walls of the queen’s room is distinctly feminine; instead of being divided by pilasters, they have richly decorated panels framed in the stylish French boucle motif of repeated overlapping loops and high vertical fields of mosaic patterns. Where the king’s room has laurel wreaths and swags, the queen’s has roses.

No elevenses anywhere!

I know where we can find some!

Vete-Katten was so busy, we got the princess cake take-away

An Artistic View of the Northern Lights

And A Dark Wind Blows, by Steve Driscoll at Peter Robertson Gallery, Edmonton, AL, 2016

To recreate the wonder of viewing the Northern Lights, Steve Driscoll pumped more than 11,000 litres of water into Edmonton’s Peter Robertson Gallery.

Steve Driscoll wanted to recreate that tingly feeling you get when faced with an awesome display of nature, inside an art gallery. The visit to Peter Robertson Gallery felt like a visit to the nearest National Park. Assuming your nearest National Park is in a Northern Lights friedly viewing zone. Looking up you saw the Aurora Borealis in peacock greens and blues. Looking down you saw them again, reflected in the man-made lake.

And A Dark Wind Blows, by Steve Driscoll at Peter Robertson Gallery, Edmonton, AL, 2016
And A Dark Wind Blows, by Steve Driscoll at Peter Robertson Gallery, Edmonton, AL, 2016

Edmonton was an appropriate location for the exhibition, it is also the location for the Northern Lights Music Festival.

Steve Driscoll is a Toronto artist who has built a reputation for surreal wilderness scenes since the early 2000s. His current exibition is Just a Sliver of the Room.

Just a Sliver of the Room by Steve Driscoll